Often in modern medicine, the term "iatrogenia" is used - this term denotes those conditions that are directly or indirectly related to the actions of medical personnel. Often a doctor even poses a certain danger to the patient and can cause injury to him, incorrectly communicating with him or performing certain manipulations.
Classification of iatrogenic diseases. Psychogenic type
Depending on what are the causes of iatrogenia, several types are distinguished. The first of them - psychogenic diseases, the second - organic. The latter are divided into medicinal, traumatic, infectious. There are iatrogenia and mixed type. Severe emotional state of the patient can arise from careless words of the attending physician, tactlessness of the personnel of the medical institution, from familiarization of the patient with his medical history. Also, the mental balance affects the abundance of information, sometimes clearly exaggerated or biased.Psychogenic iatrogenic is a state of depression, neuroses, hysterics, the development of various phobias, as well as other disorders in the work of the patient's nervous system. A person develops a lack of confidence in the words and actions of the doctor, any manipulation scares him. Of course, such types of iatrogenia depend significantly on the patient's general emotional state, his balance. Often such people need the help of a psychologist or psychiatrist.
Iatrogenic drug type
This is a fairly extensive group of diseases that can develop due to illiterate drug intake. The manifestations of such iatrogenic are diverse. This and allergic reactions after taking medications, and all sorts of side effects: intoxication, shock, disruption of other organs, mutagenic effects of drugs on the body cells. Such types of iatrogenia include both drug dependence, and conflict when accepting incompatible substances. These conditions can develop from illiterate drugs, their wrong reception.Also, the drug iatrogenia can include reactions, complications after the introduction of the vaccine. The most dangerous conditions are complications after the introduction of anesthesia, anesthesia, emergency resuscitation. Iatrogenia in medicine includes another species that develops when the doses of X-ray and laser radiation are exceeded.
Iatrogenia of traumatic character
Such conditions can develop due to medical manipulations, examinations, surgical intervention. Traumatic iatrogenic - these are burns, which can have different nature (chemical, thermal, radiation), and traumas (accidental or not). Invasive methods of research have recently gained wide popularity, because they give a more complete picture of the disease. However, with insufficient qualification of the doctor, such manipulations are quite dangerous. Therefore, if it is possible to choose a less traumatic method, preference should be given to him.Another category of iatrogenic of this type is the abandonment of foreign objects in the body of the operated patient. Avoid this situation with the increased attention of all doctors during the operation. Also in this category include the deprivation of a person medical care, and the so-called surgical aggression (that is, unnecessary surgical intervention, the testimony to which was not).
Iatrogenic infectious diseases
This is also a fairly extensive group of diseases. Sometimes they are called nosocomial infections, but in fact, such conditions occur mainly due to medical manipulation. Depending on the site of the lesion, iatrogenic blood, infection of wounds, genitourinary, cardiac systems, respiratory organs, skin, etc., are excreted. Pathogens can be bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Infectious iatrogenia are consequences of violations of the elementary rules of asepsis, disinfection, improper care of the patient. Particular attention should be given to a surgical instrument, materials for dressing wounds. This condition can be observed in medical personnel (as a result of non-compliance with hygiene, neglect of protective equipment when working with patients). The factors that can not be affected include old equipment, staff shortages. Unfortunately, it is impossible to completely exclude the entry of microorganisms into the wound during surgery.
How to reduce the number of iatrogenic diseases: actions by doctors
Any medical worker must constantly improve his skills, improve his skills, replenish his knowledge. When performing a surgical intervention, it is very important not to be distracted and to carefully perform all manipulations. In addition, it is necessary not to forget about ethics when dealing with patients and about such a concept as a medical secret. Disclosure of information about the patient, his condition can cause the nervousness, severe mental state.
Patients, in turn, in order to avoid the development of iatrogenic, should study the opinions about the doctor, the medical institution, in which they plan to apply. Very often people who are in a state of hypochondria become like "professional" patients. They go from one specialist to another, passing a lot of examinations in order to find the disease. Often it is not at all. Such actions increase the risk of developing iatrogenic diseases. The causes of iatrogenic drug - in frequent cases of uncontrolled drug intake. Therefore it is important to observe the rule: drugs are prescribed only by a specialist. Unjustified and the reception of a large number of medicines, because the mechanism of their interaction has been studied little, so any side reactions are possible.In the modern world, we can talk about information iatrogeny. A large amount of available information is one of the reasons for self-medication, which can lead to irreparable consequences. That is why the prevention of iatrogenic is a concern for one's own health, which does not go beyond acceptable limits and is not fanatical.