Few people notice the importance in the body of the TMJ. Problems and solutions related to it are of no interest to anyone. But only until the person himself will not face the disease of this joint.
What is TMJ?
We will understand what the TMJ means, problems and decisions of which plan it has. This is the temporomandibular joint. It is located at the man in front of the ear and consists of the lower jaw and the temporal bone. Nearby muscles and tendons provide opening and closing of the mouth. In a normal state, without pathologies of jaw motion, a person does not get any discomfort. The temporomandibular joint can be called one of the most commonly used in the body, because it works all day during conversation, yawning, chewing food.
Like everyone else, he is prone to disease, and it is not uncommon - about 40% of people experienced them on themselves, although the diseases of this joint are less common than, for example, caries or periodontitis. However, not every one of the patients turns to a doctor for help, simply not understanding what the symptoms are related to, and waiting for their own disappearance.
Symptoms of diseases
If we consider TMJ diseases, problems and solutions (diagnosis will be discussed below), they may differ depending on the nature and type of the disease. But their symptoms can be combined into one list, since they are similar in the presence of various ailments:
- pain in the ears, zalozhennost, ringing;
- spasm in the jaw and facial muscles;
- extraneous sounds during jaw movements - crunching, clicks, grinding;
- enlarged lymph nodes (submandibular),
If you find such symptoms, you should consult a dentist, because it is possible that this is a disease of the TMJ.
Causes of diseases
Diseases of the TMJ, problems and solutions associated with them, are few, but the factors of their occurrence are quite a lot. Causes of diseases can be different in nature of the phenomenon:
- trauma to the jaw or facial bone;
- stress, overstrain;
- problems with the endocrine system;
- infectious diseases;
- excessive physical activity;
- bite abnormalities;
- dental diseases that make complications.
Diseases of the TMJ
If you pay attention in time to the condition of the TMJ (problems, symptoms), the solution of problems will come with the diagnosis and determination of the type of disease. Temporomandibular joint can be subjected to such diseases:
- Arthritis. Characterized by painful sensations in the joint area, its swelling, restriction of jaw movements. The temperature may rise. In chronic form, a crunch is observed during movement. If the disease is started, the joint deformity can result.
- Osteoarthritis. There is pain in the joint and ears, anomalous movements of the jaw during opening (zigzag), accompanied by clicks and crunching. Often there is pain in the chewing muscles.
- Dislocation of the joint. Characterized by a violation of the location of the jaws relative to each other with the displacement of the head and disc joint, pain when opening, clicks.
- Ankylosis. Limitation of the movement of the jaw, which causes trauma or infection. Purulent form is dangerous by the appearance of face asymmetry, extensive caries, malocclusion. In neglected form - a complete loss of movement.
- Musculo-articular dysfunction. It is manifested by pain in the ear and temple, which is strengthened when the joint moves, by clicking, by blocking the jaw.
To diagnose TMJ diseases, the most modern methods are used, which make it possible to put the right diagnosis. After all, the favorable outcome of treatment depends on this. To identify all the problems and solutions for the TMJ, the technique for determining the disease includes clinical, radiologic and functional studies. Initially, the doctor examines the oral cavity, analyzes the patient's complaints. This work is carried out by an orthopedic dentist. It produces palpation of the chewing muscles, the joint itself, evaluates the amplitude of the jaw movements, whether it is difficult.
An important role in determining the disease is played by radiography, it makes it possible to reveal obvious changes in the joint. At an early stage of the disease use a computerized tomography. All problems and solutions related to the TMJ are known to the orthodontist. If necessary, the patient is referred for consultation and to a rheumatologist, endocrinologist or other specialists.
Methods of treatment
When the TMJ disease has already been determined, problems and solutions, the treatment is based on general recommendations:
- Use of soft foods that do not require thorough and long chewing. Observing the resting mode for the joint, you can not open your mouth wide.
- The use of different compresses according to indications, cold - to reduce pain, warm - to relieve tension and cramps in the muscles.
- Taking anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs.
- Elimination of excessive compression of the teeth by correcting the occlusion. This can be done with a special acrylic construction and prosthesis.
- Physiotherapy (electrophoresis, massage).
- Relieving muscle tension (taking antispasmodics).
- In case of unfavorable course of the disease, after applying all the methods of treatment, one will have to resort to surgery. By the nature of the disease the doctor will conclude that it is necessary to carry out - the correction of the joint or its complete replacement.
It is easier and faster to treat the disease of the TMJ at an early stage, so do not ignore the symptoms. Treatment of advanced forms of the disease sometimes lasts up to several years.
Arthrosis provokes dystrophic changes in the tissues of the joint. It shows aching pain, the presence of extraneous sounds during the movement of the jaw, the limitation of its mobility, stiffness. Treatment of arthrosis includes orthopedic operations (for example, prosthetics), massage, therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy. The launched form of arthrosis is treated only by operative intervention in the TMJ. Osteoarthritis, problems and solutions associated with it, must carefully examine and weigh the orthodontic dentist before deciding to surgery, this is an extreme measure.
The disease is common among the elderly, half of them are affected. At a young age is less common, mostly in women. The main causes of arthrosis may be the presence of chronic arthritis, malocclusion, bruxism, trauma and jaw surgery, improper dental manipulation (improper insertion or prosthetics), and many other factors (menopause in women, genetic predisposition, etc.). For prevention is recommended correction of bite, timely elimination of diseases of the oral cavity, carrying out prosthetics (or other dental work) only a high-class specialist.
Arthritis - inflammation of cartilage joint tissues with possible atrophy. Older people who already have rheumatoid arthritis of other joints are more susceptible to the disease. Also, the cause of arthritis may be injuries, infections (as a complication of influenza or chronic tonsillitis), dental diseases. Aggravating factors are chronic diseases and reduced immunity. At an early stage, arthritis occurs without any visible symptoms.
The first sign, in the presence of which it is already worthwhile to see a doctor, is a numbness of the lower jaw in the morning. Behind him, there are other symptoms - aching (or sharp) pain, extraneous sounds when the jaw moves (crunching, clicking). If arthritis is the result of a trauma, it will manifest itself immediately after swelling and severe pain, gradually spreading to the neck, head, ears, and tongue.
If a person suspects having an HPJ arthritis, problems and solutions should be discussed immediately with the doctor, without further development of the disease. The main principle in the treatment is to ensure the immobility of the joint, fixing the jaw with a sling-like dressing. In the arthritis of any etiology prescribe anabolics. Treatment of an infectious form is impossible without antibiotics and immunostimulants. When traumatic arthritis is necessary to remove swelling and improve blood circulation.
Misalignment of the temporomandibular joint is called dysfunction of the TMJ. This ailment is accompanied by clicking sounds during the movement of the jaw, as well as its blocking for a short time. Other associated symptoms of dysfunction are pain in the ears, eye area, jaw (during chewing or yawning) and facial muscles, bite change, headaches. After you discuss with the doctor the problems and solutions that have appeared with the TMJ, the dysfunction can be eliminated in some ways, which the specialist will recommend. The following treatment options are available:
- the use of medications that relieve muscle spasm, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs;
- correction of bite with the help of a special design, elimination of grinding of teeth and their increased erasure;
- carrying out psychological therapy to relieve stress and relax the muscles;
- if the treatment methods recommended by the doctor have not yielded results, a surgical operation is performed on the joint.
The dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is the displacement of the ends of its bones, which interferes with the normal functioning of the jaw. Distinguish between acute (traumatic) and habitual forms. Traumatic dislocation occurs as a result of impact on the lower jaw, extraction of teeth or prosthetics and even during chewing, screaming or yawning. The habitual dislocation appears due to the weakness of the joints of the joint apparatus, its anatomical features. It is impossible to solve the problems arising from the TML independently. And the doctor should decide about this. Treatment is carried out by limiting the movement of the jaw with an orthodontic device. If necessary, use physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory drugs.