Few people notice the importance in the body of the TMJ. The problems and solutions associated with it, nobody is interested. But only until the person himself is faced with a disease of this joint.
What is TMJ?
We will understand what the TMJ means, problems and solutions of which plan it has. This is the temporomandibular joint. It is located in front of the ear and consists of the lower jaw and the temporal bone. The adjacent muscles and tendons provide opening and closing of the mouth. In normal condition, without pathologies of movement, the jaw does not cause any discomfort to a person. The temporomandibular joint can be called one of the most frequently used in the body, because it works throughout the day when talking, yawning, chewing food.
Like everyone else, it is susceptible to diseases, and it is not uncommon - about 40% of people experienced them themselves, although diseases of this joint are less common than, for example, caries or periodontitis. However, not every sick person turns to a doctor for help, simply does not understand what the symptoms are associated with, and is waiting for them to disappear on their own.
Symptoms of the disease
If we consider diseases of the TMJ, problems and solutions (the diagnosis will be discussed below), they may differ depending on the nature and type of the disease. But their symptoms can be combined into one list, since they are similar in the presence of various ailments:
- ear pain, congestion, ringing;
- spasm in the jaw and facial muscles;
- extraneous sounds during movements of the jaw - crunch, clicks, gnash;
- enlarged lymph nodes (submandibular),
If you find such symptoms should consult a dentist, because it is possible that this disease TMJ.
Causes of disease
There are few diseases of the TMJ, problems and solutions related to them, but there are a lot of factors of their occurrence. The causes of diseases can be different in nature phenomena:
- trauma to the jaw or facial bone;
- stress, overstrain;
- endocrine problems;
- metabolic disorders;
- infectious diseases;
- excessive exercise;
- bite abnormalities;
- dental diseases, giving complications.
Diseases of the temporomandibular joint
If time to pay attention to the state of TMJ (problems, symptoms), the solution of problems will come with the diagnosis and determination of the type of disease. The temporomandibular joint can be affected by the following diseases:
- Arthritis. It is characterized by painful sensations in the joint area, its swelling, restriction of jaw movements. The temperature may rise. In chronic form, there is a crunch during movement. If you start the disease, the result may be a deformity of the joint.
- Arthrosis Manifested by pain in the joint and ears, abnormal jaw movements when opening (zigzag), accompanied by clicks and crunch. Often there is pain in the masticatory muscles.
- Dislocated joint. It is characterized by a violation of the location of the jaws relative to each other with displacement of the head and the disk of the joint, pain when opening, clicks.
- Ankylosis. Restriction of jaw movement caused by injuries or infections. Purulent form is dangerous asymmetry of the face, extensive caries, abnormal bite. In a neglected form - complete loss of movement.
- Musculo-articular dysfunction. Manifested by pain in the ear and temple, aggravated by the movement of the joint, clicking, blocking the jaw.
To diagnose diseases of the TMJ, the most modern methods are used that allow you to make the correct diagnosis. After all, the favorable outcome of treatment depends on this. In order to identify all problems and solutions for TMJ, the method for determining the disease includes clinical, radiological and functional studies. Initially, the doctor examines the oral cavity, analyzes the patient's complaints. This work is carried out by an orthopedic surgeon. It produces palpation of the masticatory muscles of the joint itself, evaluates the amplitude of the jaw movements, whether it is difficult.
A large role in determining the disease is played by radiography, it allows you to identify obvious changes in the joint. At an early stage of the disease using computed tomography. All problems and solutions associated with TMJ are known to the orthodontist. If necessary, the patient is sent for consultation and to a rheumatologist, endocrinologist or other specialists.
When a disease of the TMJ has been identified, problems and solutions, treatment is based on general recommendations:
- The use of soft foods that do not require thorough and long chewing. Respecting the rest for the joint, you can not open your mouth wide.
- The use of different compresses on the testimony, cold - to reduce pain, warm - to relieve tension and cramps in the muscles.
- Acceptance of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs.
- Eliminate excessive compression of teeth by correcting the bite. This can be done with a special acrylic construction and prostheses.
- Physiotherapy (electrophoresis, massage).
- Relieving muscle tension (taking antispasmodics).
- In case of unfavorable course of the disease after the application of all methods of treatment will have to resort to surgery. By the nature of the disease, the doctor will conclude that it is necessary to carry out - correction of the joint or its complete replacement.
It is easier and faster to treat a disease of the TMJ at an early stage, so do not ignore the symptoms that have appeared. Treatment of advanced forms of the disease sometimes lasts up to several years.
Arthrosis provokes dystrophic changes in the tissues of the joint. Manifested by aching pain, the presence of extraneous sounds when moving the jaw, restriction of its mobility, stiffness. Treatment of arthrosis includes orthopedic operations (for example, prosthetics), massage, therapeutic gymnastics, and physiotherapy. The neglected form of arthrosis is treated only with surgical intervention in the TMJ. Osteoarthritis, problems and solutions associated with it, must carefully examine and weigh the orthodontist before deciding on an operation, this is a last resort.
The disease is common among the elderly, half of such a population suffers. At a young age is less common, mainly in women. The main causes of arthrosis can be the presence of chronic arthritis, improper bite, bruxism, injuries and jaw operations, incorrect dental procedures (improper installation of a seal or prosthetics), as well as many other factors (menopause in women, genetic predisposition, etc.). For prophylaxis, bite correction, timely elimination of diseases of the oral cavity, prosthetics (or other dental work) only by a high-class specialist are recommended.
Arthritis is an inflammation of the cartilaginous tissues of the joint with their possible atrophy. Older people who already have rheumatoid arthritis of other joints are more susceptible to the disease. Also, the cause of arthritis can be injuries, infections (as a complication of the flu or chronic tonsillitis), dental diseases. Aggravating factors - chronic diseases and reduced immunity. At an early stage, arthritis occurs without visible symptoms.
The first sign, in the presence of which it is already worth to see a doctor, is numbness of the lower jaw in the morning. Other symptoms appear behind it - aching (or sharp) pain, extraneous sounds during jaw movement (crunching, clicking). If arthritis is the result of injury, it will manifest itself immediately after injury by swelling and severe pain, gradually spreading to the neck, head, ears, tongue.
If a person suspects arthritis of the TMJ, they should immediately discuss the problems and solutions with the doctor, preventing further development of the disease. The main principle in the treatment - ensuring the immobility of the joint, fixation of the jaw with a pressure bandage. With arthritis of any etiology, anabolics are prescribed. Treatment of an infectious form is impossible without antibiotics and immunostimulants. In traumatic arthritis, it is necessary to remove the edema and improve circulation.
Improper functioning of the temporomandibular joint is called TMJ dysfunction. This disease is accompanied by clicking sounds when the jaw moves, as well as blocking it for a short time. Other associated symptoms of dysfunction are pain in the ears, eyes, jaw (while chewing or yawning) and facial muscles, alteration of the bite, headaches. After you discuss with your doctor problems and solutions that arise with TMJ, the dysfunction can be eliminated in some ways that a specialist will recommend. The following treatment options exist:
- the use of drugs that relieve muscle spasm, painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs;
- adjustment of the bite with the help of a special design, elimination of teeth gnashing and their increased wear;
- conducting psychological therapy to relieve stress and relax muscles;
- if the treatment methods recommended by the doctor have failed, a joint surgical operation is performed.
Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is the displacement of the ends of its bones, interfering with the normal functioning of the jaw. There are acute (traumatic) and habitual forms. Traumatic dislocation occurs as a result of hitting the lower jaw, removing teeth or prosthetics, and even while chewing, shouting or yawning. The habitual dislocation appears due to the fragility of the connections of the articular apparatus, its anatomical features. It is impossible to solve problems arising from the TMJ. And decisions about this should take a doctor. The treatment is carried out by limiting the movement of the jaw with an orthodontic apparatus. If necessary, use physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory drugs.