To date, a very urgent issue - cancer treatment. Before considering it, it is important to know what kinds of cancer exist and which one is the most dangerous for health and life.
Cancer. General information
Cancer is a serious malignant disease that develops from epithelial healthy cells and can affect any organ or system of the human body. Until now, the causes of the growth of pathological cells have not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the more we are aware of the facts known to modern medicine, the easier it is to avoid this or to find the right way out.
There is a theory that the appearance of cancer is associated with a mutation of body tissues. But this is not proven, like the other versions.
Causes of occurrence. Types of Cancer
Knowledge of the causes of the occurrence can save anyone who, for whatever reason, is at risk. Here are a few common reasons that explain the nature of the appearance of foreign cells in a healthy body:
- air pollution;
- genetic abnormalities;
- use of nicotine;
- inflammatory processes in the chronic stage;
- viruses and infections;
- carcinogens, which are now used in almost everything, and avoid the effects of which it is not possible.
What kinds of cancer are there? There are several species:
- carcinoma is the most common type of cancer that affects the esophagus, prostate, mammary glands;
- leukemia - a cancer that is localized in the bone marrow, but gives metastases throughout the body;
- sarcoma is a cancer that arises from the cells of the lymphatic system.
Blood cancer. Dangerous appearance
Blood cancer is also called hemoblastosis. This is a group of diseases of the circulatory system. Among them there are especially dangerous types of blood cancer, it is leukemia, hematosarcoma, lymphoma, angioma, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastosis leukemia, acute monoblastous leukemia and others.
Leukemia manifests itself as a violation of the differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. With this pathology, the body accumulates a large number of cancer cells, which do not respond to any function, but only slowly poison the body. More often leukemia affects people in old age or children under 4 years old.
Cancer of the genitals. Uterine cancer
Tumors of the genital organs are malignant formations that can affect the external and internal organs.
The most common among women is uterine cancer. Types of uterine cancer affect women between 55 and 70 years of age, but there are often exceptions when very young women are screened and are diagnosed with a terrible diagnosis of endometrial cancer. There is a hormonal type and an autonomous.
- Hormonal is more "young" cancer, it happens in women under 40 years old, who at a young age suffered from problems with conception, diabetes, hyperglycemia and other problems.
- Autonomous occurs in older women - 60-70 years. These patients have a reduced susceptibility to hormones and the absence of metabolic disturbances of the endocrine system.
Gastrointestinal tract cancer
Tumors of the stomach and intestines - a very common disease. Such types of cancer of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract are known:
- polypoid - is about 6% of all species, and its effect is that the cancer corrodes the walls of the stomach. Pathological areas affected by cancer are well distinguished against a background of healthy tissues;
- carcinoma, cancer-ulcer or expressed - has about 36%, clear edges are visible, but practically no different from stomach ulcers;
- partial carcinoma - no clear edges, protrudes above the level of healthy tissues and affects large areas of the stomach;
- infiltrative cancer - develops inside the walls of the stomach, it is difficult to diagnose;
- adenocarcinoma - begins from the cells of the mucous membrane, or more precisely - the glandular epithelium.
And also some types of bowel cancer:
Types of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract can produce metastases, but with timely access to an oncologist, you can perform effective treatment.
Lungs' cancer. The most dangerous form of cancer
Lung cancer is a malignant neoplasm that appears from the bronchial epithelium. Experts, finding out what kinds of cancer are, and having studied their pathogenesis, determined that the lung tumor is the most life-threatening cancer.
- central - the main bronchi are affected;
- peripheral - the tumor grows from the alveoli and small bronchi;
- mediastinal - characterized by the rapid appearance of metastases in the lymph nodes;
- disseminated form - a large number of foci of growth of pathological cells in the lung tissue are formed;
- cancer of the trachea;
- low-differentiated. Lung cancer of this species is one of the most dangerous.
What are the causes of this terrible pathology? First of all, the occurrence of a lung tumor is affected by smoking. It does not matter whether it's active or passive smoking. The very fact of inhaling carcinogens is the main cause of cancer development. The next factor that can cause such types of cancer, you can identify contact with poisons, such as nickel, cadmium, arsenic.
Heredity also plays a role in the onset of the tumor, along with such factors as radioactive irradiation, poor ecology, chronic pulmonary diseases and others.
What kinds of cancer are there in women? Most often, women are affected by mammary glands. This disease leads the list of the most dangerous and frequent pathologies. Suffer from breast tumors predominantly women from 40 to 60 years, but the disease is rapidly becoming younger, and have already isolated types of breast cancer that affect young girls.
Most of the tumors that the mammologist or the women themselves detect can be attributed to benign. This galactocele, fibro-cystic mastopathy and fibroadenoma of the gland. Such types of disease, cancer diagnosed at the optimal time, promptly identify oncologists, and treatment is carried out, possibly even removal of the mammary glands in order to avoid a second process.
What are the causes of the development of pathological growth of cells in the mammary gland:
- abnormalities in the development of the breast;
- alcoholism, smoking and other bad habits are an important risk factor, if we take into account the genetic predisposition of the woman;
- poor ecology, polluted air and poor-quality drinking water;
- late delivery can also become a trigger trigger at the beginning of the development of pathology;
- long-term use of hormonal drugs and others.
Breast cancer with timely access to the oncologist is treated with the ability to exclude repetition.
Symptoms of cancer
The problem is that at the initial stages of development the cancer does not make itself felt, and only early diagnosis will help to determine the presence and severity of the pathological process.
Symptoms of cancer are:
- rapid weight loss;
- a long time increased body temperature;
- a state of apathy and constant fatigue for no reason;
- may change color, shape, size of birthmarks or moles;
- ulcers appear in the oral cavity;
- with time, painful sensations increase.
In addition to the main symptoms, there are specific ones. Long-term wound healing can talk about changing cells in the body, losing their function - cancer processes. Atypical discharge or bleeding, as well as problems with urination may indicate the presence of cancer cells in the body.
Diagnosis of Cancer
To date, there are many unresolved issues that oncology poses for itself. Types of cancer mutate and become invulnerable. For qualitative treatment, it is necessary to diagnose the disease correctly.
For this purpose, use of ultrasound therapy, computed tomography, mammography (to identify types of breast cancer), endoscopic method for diagnosis of tumors in the stomach, esophagus and intestines, magnetic resonance imaging, radioisotope diagnostics and others.
More about radiographic research - the main method of diagnosis of cancer.
Radiography is used at the slightest suspicion of pathological processes in cells. With this method, you can examine the lungs, large intestine, stomach, bones. Recently, special methods have been used - bronchography, angiography, which significantly increase the likelihood of detection of cancerous processes.
Already for many years there has been an active discussion and research of drugs for the treatment of cancer. But, unfortunately, medicine has not yet found a single way to cure such patients. Therefore, after the detection of cancer processes, complex treatment is carried out using radiotherapy, chemotherapeutic drugs and surgical methods.
- Radiation therapy of cancer patients: the principle of such treatment is the increased sensitivity of pathological cells to ionizing radiation. After such a procedure, a mutation takes place in diseased cells, and they die. Therapy is not indicated for children, since their cells are still in development and most likely to be irradiated. Some types of lung cancer are successfully treated after the procedure.
- The chemotherapeutic effect on cancer cells is very aggressive, and the procedure is shown only in advanced stages, if other types of cancer treatment do not help. The dose is selected depending on the weight of the patient, the type of tumor, its position and the patient's condition. Combine different drugs to maximize the effect on tumor cells.
- Surgical treatment is often resorted to, since it is the most effective and reliable method. Treatment consists in removal of the focus of pathology. But the surgical method will be ineffective if the body already has metastases.
Severe and most dangerous types of cancer, such as lung cancer, are not always cured. In this case, maintenance therapy is applied, but the chances that the patient will survive are very few.