The human body is a complex system that performs a huge number of operations. A significant role in the proper organization of the human body is played by hormones. These are catalysts for biochemical processes, which are produced by glands of internal secretion. There are different kinds of hormones, and each of them performs a certain function.
Classification of hormones
Depending on the chemical structure, these types of hormones are released. The protein-peptide group combines the secrets of such glands as the pituitary, hypothalamus, pancreatic and parathyroid hormones. This type includes calcitonin, which is produced by the thyroid gland. The second group includes derivatives of amino acids (norepinephrine and adrenaline, thyroxine, etc.). There are also steroid types of hormones. They are synthesized mainly in the sex glands, as well as the adrenal glands (estrogen, progesterone). The hormones of the first two groups respond primarily to metabolic processes in our body. Steroidal types of hormones control physical development and the process of reproduction. Depending on the method of signal transmission from secretion to cells, lipophilic and hydrophilic hormones are distinguished. The first easily penetrate the membrane of the cell into its nucleus. The latter bind to the receptors on the surface of the structural element, triggering the synthesis of so-called mediator molecules. It is characteristic that hydrophilic hormones are transferred with blood flow, and lipophilic hormones bind to its proteins and are transported in this way.
The human endocrine system
This is the name of the aggregate of all glands and organs in the human body, which secrete special biologically active elements - hormones. Responds to the endocrine system for a variety of processes, while ensuring the normal development of the body. It controls chemical reactions, generates energy, affects the psycho-emotional state of a person. The endocrine system includes the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary gland and epiphysis, adrenal glands, hypothalamus. Also included here are organs such as the testes, the ovaries. All hormones go directly to the blood or lymph. Any disturbance in the work of the human endocrine system can cause severe diseases (diabetes, tumor processes, obesity, hyper- and hypothyroidism
Tissue hormones, their types and functions
This type of hormones is produced in the tissues of the body and their action, as a rule, local. Sometimes such hormones can get into the blood. Histamine - a substance that plays a big role in the occurrence of allergic reactions. In the active state causes vasodilation, increases their permeability. Also histamine contributes to contractions of the musculature of the intestine, can cause spasms in the bronchi. Serotonin has such an effect: the vessels shrink, their permeability decreases. He is also called the hormone of happiness. If his development is normal, a person has a good mood, he feels a surge of energy. Both histamine and serotonin actively participate in the transfer of impulses to the brain. Kininy is another tissue hormone. Their types and functions are as follows. Nanopeptide, kallidin, T-kinin, bradykinin (reduces pressure) - all of them, getting into the blood, cause the symptoms of the inflammatory process. These hormones are involved in the regulation of blood circulation. Another category of biologically active tissue secrets is prostaglandins. They affect the smooth muscles of the organs, reduce the secretion of gastric juice. Control cell division of substances such as Ceylon. Another type of tissue hormones - gastrin, secretin.
Thyroid. Types of hormones and their functions
This organ has the form of a butterfly and is located in the neck (anterior). Its weight is relatively small - about 20 grams. Regulation of sexual (reproductive) functions, digestive systems, metabolic processes, maintenance of a normal psychoemotional state - all these control the hormones of the thyroid gland. Kinds of them are as follows. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine are extremely important secrets for human health. In order for them to form, you need a sufficient supply of iodine. The effect of these hormones is similar, however, triiodothyronine is more active. First of all, these substances take part in energy exchange processes. They also affect the functioning of the heart muscle, intestine, central nervous system. Also these kinds of hormones take part in the development of the whole organism, the maturation of the reproductive system. Calcitonin is responsible for the level of calcium in the blood, and also takes part in water-electrolyte metabolism. Insufficient production of thyroid hormones leads to rapid fatigability of the person, lethargy, all metabolic processes slow down. If they are produced in excess, then you can observe excessive activity and excitability.
An analysis of the hormones that the thyroid gland produces
If a person experiences such changes as weight fluctuations (sudden set or weight loss), problems with sexual desire, stopping menstruation, delaying the development (psychological) in children, then it is necessary to prescribe a blood test for the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. To surrender it should be prepared in a special way. It is best to limit any physical activity on the eve of the test. Also it is necessary to exclude alcohol, coffee, tobacco (even for a day). Blood sampling takes place in the morning, on an empty stomach. Hormones of the thyroid gland can be in both bound and free state. Therefore, in the course of the studies, the amount of free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, tirotropine is determined, as well as the level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin. Typically, the study takes one day. Depending on the results obtained, one can speak about a particular disease.
Parathyroid gland and its secrets
On the posterior surface of the thyroid gland are located small glands, which are also called parathyroid. They take a direct part in the exchange of calcium and phosphorus in the body. Depending on the characteristics of the person, the gland can be of a mesh type, alveolar or as a continuous mass. It synthesizes parathyroid hormone, which, like calcitonin, takes part in calcium metabolism. It also affects the bone system, intestines, and kidneys. If the development of the parathyroid hormone is broken, then mental disorders, problems with bones, calcification of internal organs, vessels are possible. With hypoparathy, muscle spasms appear, the heart rate increases, and headaches can occur. If such signs are present, a blood test for parathyroid hormones may be necessary. Their large content increases the level of calcium in the blood, and as a result, causes the fragility of bone tissue.
Hormones produced by the adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are the paired organs that are located at the top of the kidneys. These types of hormones and their functions are as follows. The cortical layer of glands produces substances that regulate the exchange of nutrients and minerals. Also, hormones of this type control the level of glucose. The cerebral ball of the adrenal glands synthesizes adrenaline and norepinephrine. Often they are developed with strong emotional outbursts (fear, danger). When these hormones enter the blood, the blood pressure rises, the heart rhythm increases, the excitability of the receptors of the eyes and hearing increases. Thus, the body is preparing for the need to endure a stressful situation. The adrenal glands produce glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol), which regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates. Their concentration depends on the time of day: the maximum amount of cortisol is observed at about 6 am. Mineralocorticoid hormones (aldosterone) regulate salt metabolism. Thanks to them, the fluid is retained in the body. Also, the adrenal glands secrete androgen such as androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DEA). They regulate the work of the sebaceous glands, form a libido. When analyzing blood for adrenal hormones, the level of DEA is examined. Its high content may be about the presence of glandular tumors. In addition, the excess of this hormone leads to severe consequences during pregnancy (miscarriage, child's hypotrophy, problems with the placenta). If there are complaints about increased hair growth, earlier puberty, menstrual irregularity, weakness in the muscles - you may need a blood test for cortisol.
Pancreas. Types of hormones and their functions
In addition to the fact that the pancreas takes an active part in the digestive processes, it also produces hormones that are extremely necessary for the normal functioning of the body. They all fall directly into the blood of a person. This body produces such kinds of hormones: insulin, c-peptide, glucagon. The main function of insulin is the regulation of the sugar level. If the processes of its synthesis are violated, development of diabetes mellitus is possible. Also, insulin affects the production of active substances of the gastrointestinal tract, the synthesis of estrogens. Can be in the body in a free and bound form. If the amount of insulin is inadequate, the process of converting glucose to fat and glycogen is disrupted. In this case, the body can accumulate toxins (for example, acetone). Glucagon is also an extremely necessary element for our body. It activates the process of fission of fats, helps to increase the level of glucose in the blood. It also reduces the level of calcium, phosphorus in the blood. The types of action of pancreatic hormones are closely interrelated. Thanks to their combined effect, an optimal level of glucose is provided.
Functions of pituitary hormones
The pituitary gland is a gland of internal secretion, which consists of the anterior and posterior lobe, as well as a small section between them. This body weighs only 0.5 grams, but functions are quite important. The pituitary synthesizes the following kinds of human hormones. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex. It also affects the formation of melanin. Luteinizing hormone affects the proper functioning of the reproductive system. Thanks to it, ovulation is stimulated, androgens are produced. Thyrotropic hormone coordinates the secretion of biologically active substances of the thyroid gland. Somatotropin takes an active part in body growth and protein synthesis. It can also affect the level of glucose, the breakdown of lipids. This hormone is responsible for the normal physical development of the human body. Increasing its level leads to gigantism. If the growth hormone is lower than normal (in children), then short stature is observed. By the way, different types of growth hormone (synthetic) are used in the fight against dwarfism, to increase the mass of athletes. Prolactin is the main hormone responsible for producing milk from women. Also, due to its development during breastfeeding, the next pregnancy does not occur. In the middle part, melanotropin is produced. The posterior part produces such kinds of human hormones as oxytocin, vasopressin. The first contributes to the reduction of the uterus, the development of colostrum occurs. Vasopressin stimulates the muscles of such organs as the intestines, uterus, blood vessels.
Ovaries and testes produce sex hormones. Kinds of them are as follows. First of all, they are divided into female and male. However, in small quantities, they can be present at the opposite sex. Types of male hormones: testosterone, androsterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenediol. All of them provide development of both primary sexual characteristics and secondary ones. It should be noted that their level does not tolerate such fluctuations in comparison with women's secrets. Thanks to testosterone, the production of seminal fluid takes place, the attraction to the opposite sex is stimulated. Also, the musculature, skeleton develops in a special way, a characteristic male timbre of voice appears. Other types of steroid hormones (in particular, dihydrotestosterone) provide male behavior, as well as a characteristic appearance: hair in certain areas, the structure of the body. Types of female hormones are: progesterone, estrogen, prolactin (produced by the pituitary gland).
Progesterone is produced by the yellow body. This gland is formed after ovulation. Performs the following functions: promotes the growth of the uterus, provides an opportunity for the ovum (fertilized) to anchor in its cavity. Progesterone prepares the woman for pregnancy, and also promotes the bearing of the child. If the amount of the hormone is not enough, the menstrual cycle will be broken, bleeding may occur. Affects low levels of progesterone and emotional state: as a rule, a woman suffers from sudden mood swings. Elevated levels of the hormone may indicate either pregnancy or a tumor process. Estrogens are special types of hormones in women. They include estradiol, estrone, estriol. These substances are responsible for the formation of the female type of the figure, increase the tone and elasticity of the skin. In addition, hormones of this kind contribute to the normal course of menstruation. They also protect the vessels from accumulation of lipid plaques, promote the growth of bone tissue, retain calcium and phosphorus in it. If the level of estrogen is not enough, there is a male type of hair, the skin grows older, excess weight in the abdomen, hips accumulates, the bones become more fragile.
Blood test for sex hormones
Types of tests for hormones include the study of blood to keep sex secrets in it. Assign it if there are such violations: problems with the menstrual cycle, the inability to conceive a child, miscarriage of pregnancy, etc. Men such analysis is indicated in cases of suspicion of tumor processes, infertility. Blood must be taken in the morning, before that you can not eat. On the eve it is necessary to refuse tobacco and alcohol, great physical exertion. A woman needs to choose the right time for taking the test, as the level of hormones depends on the day of the menstrual cycle. At the same time, several indicators are being investigated. The content of follicle-stimulating hormone in the maximum number indicates the onset of ovulation. In men, this hormone promotes the growth of the vas deferens and affects the concentration of testosterone. When diagnosing infertility, special attention is paid to luteinizing hormone. In women, he is responsible for the maturation of the follicle, ovulation, the formation of a gland like the yellow body. If it is impossible to become pregnant, the parameters of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone in the complex are investigated. A blood test is also performed for the presence of a certain amount of prolactin. With deviations from the norm, the onset of ovulation is difficult. Blood is also being tested for testosterone. It is present in the body in both sexes. If his rates are lower than normal for men, then the quality of the sperm deteriorates. Also it negatively affects the potency. In women, an excess of testosterone may cause miscarriage.