Cancer of the rectum is a malignant formation in the colon. Cancer cells affect the layer that lining her inner surface. The tumor can grow in two directions: both in the passage itself and into the wall.
In recent years, colon cancer has come in first place in the statistics of oncological diseases, where the oncology of the rectum accounts for almost half of all cases. It should be noted that this disease affects more people in developed countries, such as America, Australia, Europe.
Causes of the disease
With the causes of cancer of the rectum, scientists have not yet decided. But some factors still give a fairly large percentage of the appearance of this disease:
- heredity (if someone in the family had or has cancer of the rectum, colonoscopy is recommended to be taken once a year);
- other problems of the large intestine (polyps, etc.);
- food containing little fiber;
- work in harmful production.
Early symptoms of colorectal cancer
At an early stage of the disease, the following symptoms may occur:
These manifestations do not always mean that there is cancer of the rectum. The symptom of any of the above may mean a completely different diagnosis, but it is necessary to check. After all, cancer is an asymptomatic disease in the first stages. And when there are more obvious manifestations, it may be too late.
With the diagnosis of rectal cancer, the symptom may be one, and maybe many. More recent manifestations of cancer include:
- blood in the stool;
- excretion of mucus from the anus;
- false urge to go to the toilet;
- pain during defecation and after.
The tumor in the large intestine grows relatively slowly, but for about two years the neoplasm can cover the gut completely. Then the tumor spreads to the bones of the hip joints, nearby organs and lymph nodes. With blood flow, cancer cells spread throughout the body and metastases appear in the lungs, liver and other organs.
Many do not realize that they have rectal cancer. A symptom such as constipation, very few people will force to see a doctor. However, you still need to at least visit the therapist.
How to treat rectal cancer?
The traditional method of treatment is surgical intervention. Depending on the patient's condition, only the tumor can be removed, and part of the intestine may be cut out. Sometimes the intestine is removed completely, together with the anal opening. In this case, a colostomy is applied (an artificial anus).
Chemotherapy and radiation can be applied before and after the operation. According to what scheme will be treated, the attending physician will determine based on the results of all the examinations.
With the diagnosis of "rectal cancer" symptom may be completely absent. But nevertheless it is necessary to be surveyed annually at the doctor of the proctologist or the therapist should send on the necessary researches. Serious examinations are unlikely to be prescribed in the absence of complaints, but it is possible to pass a blood test for oncomarkers and feces, for blood impurities.
For the prevention of colon cancer should eat a lot of vegetables and herbs, bran and other hard-to-digest foods. Regularly undergo surveys and lead a mobile lifestyle.