Bladder cancer is a common cancer that is more commonly diagnosed in men. In medical practice, there are two main types of pathology: invasive and non-invasive forms. In the first case, the disease is characterized by the appearance of a malignant neoplasm, which is rapidly progressing, the non-invasive form in the bladder mainly has a benign course. But even the “mild” type of the disease requires constant observation by a specialist, as it can develop into a dangerous form.
Basic information about the disease such as bladder cancer in men (survival rate, treatment and diagnostic methods, factors that trigger the disease) is given in the article.
To identify the specific causes of the disease at the moment is not possible. It is also unknown why one person, who seemed to be completely healthy and leading a correct lifestyle, may suddenly get cancer, while another does not experience the appearance of tumors of a different nature, although he has bad habits and concomitant pathologies.
The following factors increase the likelihood of bladder cancer:
- the presence of bad habits: nicotine and alcohol dependence;
- unfavorable heredity: cases of cancer in close relatives;
- contact with certain chemical compounds: benzene, aniline, dyes and solvents;
- the presence of congenital abnormalities of the bladder;
- frequent physical or emotional stress;
- improper (irrational) food, frequent eating too fatty or fried foods;
- chemotherapy or radiotherapy in the patient’s history;
- chronic diseases of the urinary system.
At the moment, the effect of HPV (Human Papillomavirus) on the likelihood of cancer, localized in the bladder, is being studied. Scientific studies prove the existence of a connection between these two pathologies. So, papillomas in the bladder are considered a precancerous disease and should be removed.
The prevalence of cancer
Bladder cancer in men (survival depends on the nature of the tumor) is more common in late middle and old age. About 3-6% of all tumors of a benign or malignant character with detailed diagnosis turn out to be bladder cancer. Every year, physicians diagnose about 300 new cases of the disease, half of which result in the death of a patient.
The clinical picture of oncology
What are the symptoms and prognosis of bladder cancer in men? Survival, symptoms of tumor development in the body are closely related, i.e., the expected prognosis depends on the severity of the course of cancer. In the early stages, any ailments may be completely absent, and the first characteristic symptom in the clinical picture of cancer is hematuria - the appearance of a bloody impurity in the urine. Hematuria may be a sign of some other inflammatory processes and chronic diseases, therefore its origin must be confirmed by laboratory tests and medical diagnostics.
Male bladder cancer (survival largely depends on the severity of the clinical picture) has the following signs:
- difficulty or frequent urination, other violations of the mechanism of emission of urine;
- swelling in the groin area;
- intense and persistent pain in the pelvic organs and on the side of the abdomen;
- general deterioration of health, weakness, sleep disturbances and loss of appetite.
Against the background of cancer can occur: pyelonephritis, cystitis, chronic insufficiency of kidney function and other associated diseases of the urinary and digestive systems.
Male bladder cancer (survival, the consequences can be very severe, even fatal) of the fourth degree is characterized by numerous dysfunctions of the internal organs. Intense pain occurs in the affected area, the amount of blood in the urine increases significantly, anemia appears, a large number of blood clots on the inner surface of the affected organ. The latter can cause frequent bleeding.
Metastases are possible (especially in the later stages) with a pathology such as bladder cancer in men. The survival rate of metastases is significantly reduced, because they are classified as serious complications.
Methods for determining cancer
The severity of the clinical picture, the stage and the presence of complications determine the bladder cancer in men, the survival rate. Diagnosis of each stage of cancer development may vary. The following main methods of detecting oncology are practiced:
- visual examination and initial patient interview: the doctor will find out complaints, ask about lifestyle and heredity, examine the history;
- laboratory analysis of urine: determined by the presence of proteins, which are characteristic of malignant tumors, the number of red blood cells and infectious agents;
- cystoscopy: bladder examinations by inserting a special medical device into the urethra;
- biopsy: the most informative method, which allows to determine the presence and nature of education with 100% probability;
- Ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography: imaging techniques help determine the size of the tumor and the extent of spread;
- radiography with a contrast agent: the purpose of the procedure is to determine the degree of penetration of the disease into the walls of the organ.
To assess the spread of the disease at the discretion of the attending physician may be appointed and additional research.
It is very important to seek qualified medical attention at the first alarming symptoms. Even with a successful set of circumstances (if cancer is not diagnosed), difficulty urinating, the appearance of blood in the urine and pain can be signs of quite serious acute inflammatory processes or chronic diseases of the organs of the excretory system.
In case of oncological disease (bladder cancer in men), the survival rate of the main methods of treatment can improve significantly if the therapy is carried out in a timely manner. Methods for cupping a tumor can be as follows: radical (surgically), chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
The choice of therapy depends on the nature and speed of the course of the disease. For example, at the fourth (last) stage of cancer, often even an operative intervention is ineffective, and all the actions of doctors are aimed at relieving the patient's condition.
Therapy for a disease called bladder cancer in men (the survival rate with timely detection of pathology is quite high) implies excision of the tumor, metastasis or the organ itself by surgery. The method of treatment is indicated at any stage of the disease, except the fourth - in the advanced case, the disease most likely has already affected many organs and systems, which makes surgical intervention inappropriate or even life-threatening for the patient.
The scope and method of the operation are purely individual. For example, removal of a small neoplasm in the early stages (with timely diagnosis of the disease) most often gives a positive result, and the patient recovers; in the second or third stage, complete removal of the damaged organ can be shown.
Radiation: chemotherapy and radiotherapy
It involves chemotherapy and radiotherapy diagnosis of bladder cancer in men. The survival rate of chemotherapy treatment significantly increases, it also reduces the risk of recurrence and is the most effective method for stopping cancer that has spread to other organ systems.
Radiation therapy is more commonly used to reduce the size of a neoplasm that has appeared, which allows further surgical intervention to be made possible. Also helps the method of treatment for bleeding. Radiotherapy reduces pain in the bones with metastases.
Relief of the patient in advanced stages
Unfortunately, if cancer of the fourth stage is diagnosed, most treatment methods that can significantly improve the prognosis are not available and will not bring the desired result. The only thing that doctors can do is to somewhat alleviate the symptoms and improve the patient’s well-being with such a serious illness as bladder cancer in men.
Survival methods of treatment at the third and fourth stages can not be improved, they are aimed at maintaining those body functions that are important for life: blood transfusion, plasma exchange, blood purification; Practiced prevention of complications directly life-threatening. Also an important element is timely pain therapy.
Innovative methods of treatment help to reduce the pain at the last stage of the development of cancer of the bladder and prolong the patient's life to a year or more.
Compared with other cancers, bladder cancer in men (survival rate after surgery is about 50%) is characterized by frequent relapses. Two to four months after excision of the tumor, and then regularly (based on the characteristics of the course of the disease in a particular patient), preventive examinations are shown.
The following factors increase the risk of recurrence:
- large size of the tumor;
- excision of several neoplasms;
- non-compliance with the recommendations of the attending physician;
- unsystematic medication;
- late stage cancer;
- belonging to the female gender.
Bladder Cancer Survival
What is the percentage of positive treatment with a diagnosis of bladder cancer in men (survival rate)? The prognosis for diagnosing a tumor at the initial stage is from 50 to 80% of cases of positive termination of treatment, oncology of the third or fourth degree gives the worst indicators: about 15-20%. It is about the survival of patients for sixty months after therapy. After successful treatment of the zero stage of cancer, when the tumor itself is not yet present, but individual abnormal cells are found, the survival rate is a record 90-95%.
Women tend to be worse off than men. The prognosis also depends on the age of the patient: if we talk about average survival, then after eighty years of age this figure is 35-40%. The picture is not encouraging, given the average value of positive outcomes in oncology of the urinary system, which is 77%.
The presence and localization of metastasis affects survival. In case the cancer metastasizes on the part of the lymphatic system in the vicinity of the bladder, then the value is about 30%, with pathology in remote organs, the survival rate decreases to 10-12%.
The best results, as a rule, can be achieved in the detection of cancer in the early stages, the immediate start of treatment and an integrated approach to therapy. Despite relatively small survival rates, the disease can and must be fought. This will help to significantly increase the duration and quality of life of the patient.
Priority areas of prevention - the elimination of factors that provoke diseases. If it is impossible to fight against unfavorable heredity, then it is quite possible to improve your own lifestyle. The main preventive measures include:
- decisive struggle with nicotine and alcohol addiction;
- minimization (and even better - complete elimination) of contact with hazardous chemical compounds;
- providing your own body with the necessary amount of vitamins and microelements, correction of the diet;
- elimination of unsystematic medication;
- the use of large amounts of clean water (at least 2 liters per day).
With the disease "bladder cancer" in men, the survival rate increases markedly if the neoplasm is diagnosed in the initial stages.