Bladder cancer is a common oncological disease, which is more often diagnosed in men. In medical practice, there are two main types of pathology: invasive and non-invasive forms. In the first case, the disease is characterized by the appearance of a malignant neoplasm, which rapidly progresses, the noninvasive form in the bladder predominantly has a benign course. But even an "easy" type of disease requires constant monitoring by a specialist, since it can develop into a dangerous form.
Basic information on the disease, such as bladder cancer in men (survival, treatment and diagnostic methods, factors triggering the disease) is given in the article.
To identify specific causes of the onset of the disease at this time is not possible. It is also unknown why one person, seemingly perfectly healthy and leading the right way of life, can suddenly develop cancer, and the other does not face the appearance of tumors of a different nature, although he has bad habits and accompanying pathologies.
Increase the likelihood of detecting bladder cancer the following factors:
- the presence of bad habits: nicotine and alcohol dependence;
- adverse heredity: cases of cancer in close relatives;
- contact with certain chemical compounds: benzene, aniline, dyes and solvents;
- presence of congenital abnormalities of the bladder;
- frequent physical or emotional overstrain;
- improper (inefficient) nutrition, frequent consumption of too fatty or fried foods;
- chemo- or radiotherapy in a patient's history;
- chronic diseases of the urinary system.
At the moment, the influence of HPV (human papillomavirus) on the likelihood of an oncological disease localized in the bladder is being studied. Scientific research proves the existence of a connection between these two pathologies. So, papillomas in the bladder are considered a precancerous disease and are subject to removal.
Prevalence of cancer
Bladder cancer in men (survival depends on the nature of the neoplasm) is more common in late middle and advanced age. About 3-6% of all cancers of benign or malignant nature with detailed diagnosis turn out to be bladder cancer. Every year, doctors diagnose about 300 new cases of the disease, half of them result in the death of the patient.
Clinical picture of oncology
What are the symptoms and prognosis of bladder cancer in men? Survival, the symptoms of the development of the tumor in the body are closely related, i.e., the severity of the oncological disease depends on the expected prognosis. In the early stages, any ailments may be absent altogether, and the first characteristic symptom in the clinical picture of cancer is hematuria - the appearance of a bloody impurity in the urine. Hematuria can be a sign of some other inflammatory processes and chronic diseases, therefore its origin must be confirmed by laboratory analyzes and medical diagnostics.
Bladder cancer in men (survival depends largely on the severity of the clinical picture) has the following symptoms:
- difficulty urination or frequent urination, other disorders of the urine emission mechanism;
- edema in the groin;
- intense and persistent pain in the area of pelvic organs and the side of the abdomen;
- general deterioration of state of health, weakness, sleep disturbances and loss of appetite.
On the background of cancer can occur: pyelonephritis, cystitis, chronic failure of kidney function and other concomitant diseases of the urinary and digestive systems.
Bladder cancer in men (survival, the consequences can be very severe, up to a lethal outcome) of the fourth degree is characterized by numerous dysfunctions of the internal organs. There are intense pain in the affected area, the amount of blood in the urine increases significantly, anemia, a large number of blood clots on the inner surface of the affected organ. The latter can cause frequent bleeding.
Possible metastases (especially in later stages) with a pathology such as bladder cancer in men. The survival of metastasis is greatly reduced, since they relate to severe complications.
Methods for determining cancer
The severity of the clinical picture, the stage and the presence of complications is determined by bladder cancer in men, survival. Diagnosis of each stage of development of cancer can differ. The following basic methods of detecting oncology are practiced:
- visual inspection and initial questioning of the patient: the doctor will find out the complaints, ask about the lifestyle and heredity, will study the anamnesis;
- laboratory analysis of urine: the presence of proteins that are characteristic of malignant tumors, the number of erythrocytes and infectious agents is determined;
- cystoscopy: examination of the bladder by introducing a special medical device into the urethra;
- biopsy: the most informative method that allows to determine the presence and nature of education with 100% probability;
- Ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography: visualization methods help determine the size of the tumor and the extent of the spread;
- radiography with contrast material: the purpose of the procedure is to determine the degree of penetration of the disease into the walls of the organ.
To assess the spread of the disease at the discretion of the attending physician, additional studies can be assigned.
It is very important to seek qualified medical care at the first alarming symptoms. Even with a successful combination of circumstances (unless an oncological disease is diagnosed), difficulty urinating, the appearance of blood in the urine and pain can be signs of a fairly serious acute inflammatory process or chronic diseases of the excretory system.
Methods of treatment
With oncological disease (bladder cancer in men), survival, the main methods of treatment can improve significantly if the therapy is performed in a timely manner. Methods of arresting the tumor can be as follows: radical (surgically), chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
The choice of method of therapy largely depends on the nature and speed of the course of the disease. Thus, for example, with the fourth (last) stage of cancer, even surgical intervention is often ineffective, and all the actions of doctors are aimed at alleviating the patient's condition.
Therapy of a disease called bladder cancer in men (survival with timely detection of pathology high enough) implies the excision of a tumor, metastasis or the organ itself by surgical means. The method of treatment is shown at any stage of the disease, except for the fourth stage - in a neglected case, the disease most likely has already affected many organs and systems, which makes surgery unreasonable or even dangerous for the patient's life.
The scope and method of the operation are highly individual. For example, the removal of a small tumor in the early stages (with timely diagnosis of the disease) often gives a positive result, and the patient recovers, in the second to third stage, a complete removal of the injured organ can be shown.
Irradiation: chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Assumes chemotherapy and radiotherapy diagnosis of "bladder cancer" in men. Survival chemotherapy treatment significantly increases, it also reduces the risk of relapse and is the most effective method of arresting oncology that has spread to other organ systems.
Radiation therapy is often used to reduce the size of the emerging tumor, which makes possible further surgical intervention. Also helps the method of treatment for bleeding. Radiotherapy reduces pain in the bones of metastases.
Facilitating the patient in advanced stages
Unfortunately, if oncological disease of the fourth stage is diagnosed, most of the treatment methods that allow to significantly improve the prognosis are not available and will not yield the proper result. The only thing that doctors can do is to alleviate the symptoms and improve the patient's health in such a serious disease as bladder cancer in men.
Survival methods of treatment in the third to fourth stages can not improve, they are aimed at maintaining those body functions that are important for life: blood transfusion, plasmapheresis, blood purification; Practice the prevention of complications that directly threaten life. Also an important element is timely pain relief therapy.
Innovative methods of treatment help to reduce morbidity in the last stage of development of cancer of the bladder and prolong the life of the patient for up to a year or more.
Relapses of the disease
In comparison with other cancers, bladder cancer in men (survival after surgery is about 50%) is characterized by frequent relapses. Two to four months after the excision of the tumor, and then regularly (based on the characteristics of the course of the disease in a particular patient), preventive examinations are shown.
The following factors increase the risk of relapse:
- large tumor size;
- excision of several neoplasms;
- non-observance of the recommendations of the attending physician;
- unsystematic administration of medications;
- late stage of cancer;
- belonging to the female sex.
Survival in cancer of the bladder
What percentage of positive therapy for the diagnosis of "bladder cancer" in men (survival rate)? The prognosis for diagnosing a tumor at the initial stage is from 50 to 80% of cases of a positive end of treatment, oncology of the third and fourth degree gives the worst results: about 15-20%. It is about the survival of patients within sixty months after therapy. After successful treatment of the zero stage of cancer, when the neoplasm itself is not yet, but isolated abnormal cells are detected, the survival rate is a record 90-95%.
Women tend to be in a worse situation than men. The prognosis also depends on the patient's age: if we talk about the average survival rate, then after the age of eighty-eight, this figure is 35-40%. The picture is not happy, given the average magnitude of positive outcomes in oncology of the urinary system, which is 77%.
Survival is affected by the presence and localization of metastases. In the event that cancer metastasizes to parts of the lymphatic system in the vicinity of the bladder, the value is approximately 30%, with foci of pathology in distant organs, survival is reduced to 10-12%.
The best results, as a rule, can be achieved with the detection of cancer in the early stages, the immediate start of treatment and an integrated approach to therapy. Despite the relatively low survival rates, it is possible and necessary to fight the disease. This will help to significantly increase the duration and quality of life of the patient.
Prevention of disease
Priority areas of prevention - elimination of factors that provoke the disease. If it is impossible to fight with unfavorable heredity, then it is quite realistic to improve one's own way of life. The main preventive measures include:
- a decisive fight against nicotine and alcohol addiction;
- minimizing (or even better - completely eliminating) contacts with hazardous chemicals;
- providing your own body with the necessary amount of vitamins and microelements, correcting the diet;
- elimination of unsystematic drugs;
- use of a large amount of clean water (at least 2 liters per day).
With the disease "bladder cancer" in men, survival is markedly increased if the tumor is diagnosed at the initial stages.