Quite a few people in the modern world have never experienced an allergy. It can manifest itself in a variety of forms - from completely innocuous and simply unpleasant to deadly. Irritants can also be completely different, individual for each. But allergic pollinosis stands apart - every spring a lot of people suffer from it. What is it?
Many people rejoice in the spring after a cold long winter. It becomes warmer, the sun shines brighter and more often, and plants start to bloom. And the latter becomes a real horror for someone who is diagnosed with "pollinosis." At its core, the disease is a kind of allergy, and the irritant is the pollen of plants, which with the arrival of spring is constantly present in the air. This ailment has many names: pollinosis, hay fever, seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, etc. And the essence is one - it is almost impossible to hide from the stimulus.
The mechanism of allergy is quite curious and is based on the malfunction of the immune system. When particles of some kind of innocent stimulus get into the body, it mistakes them for harmful microorganisms and attacks them. There is no uniform view of doctors on why this happens. There are theories that the modern world with the cult of purity and hygiene does not often challenge the human immune system, so it thus trains to remain alert in case of real danger. Another assumption is based on the fact that in the DNA of people with congenital allergies much more information is being coded about the creation of antibodies in response to various types of danger - thus, they are potentially much more adapted to changing conditions.
Perhaps those who give a pathological reaction to the simplest substances, and there are beings of the future. Whatever it was, pollinosis is a disease that affects more and more people.
Pollen is a tool by which plants grow. It can carry insect pollinators, but quite often it happens due to the movement of air and wind. Thus, light particles are in the air and can get into the human body.
When the pollen settles on the skin and mucous a person with a pathological reaction, the body turns on the immune system - and begins the pollinosis: the eyes, nose, mouth and veils react. But since it can not completely destroy the stimulus, the state does not improve until the particles disappear from the air. In total, the development of hay fever, according to scientists, is to blame for about 60 plant species.
Exacerbation of pollinosis occurs, as a rule, in the spring. It occurs approximately at the same time each year, depending on the bloom of which specific plants irritates the body of each individual allergic person. However, pollinosis can be polyvalent, that is, a person can react immediately to several types of pollen. In the most severe cases, the allergy season can last for a person all the warm season, but usually it does not exceed 4-5 weeks. And although the state of health during this period leaves much to be desired, quite often the condition can be alleviated.
Gradually, allergic pollinosis becomes a real scourge of our time. The number of patients in the world doubles every 10 years. This illness is literally all, and only slightly less often - children under 6 years old. However, given the fact that patients rarely consult doctors where they are diagnosed, WHO believes that the data on the prevalence of this disease is seriously understated. At the same time, sensitization does not pass with time, and also hardly gives in to treatment.
By the way, residents of cities are allergic to pollen (pollinosis) is much more common, although, it would seem, in the countryside there is much more greenery and plants in general. It's pretty easy to explain. The fact is that exhaust gases and other substances damage particles of pollen, and allergens come to the surface.
Symptoms and manifestations
Pollinosis is usually a fairly innocuous disease, albeit extremely unpleasant. At first, it can be confused with the common cold, which happen in the spring. Slightly fever, reddening of mucous membranes, lacrimation, runny nose, sneezing, coughing, sometimes itching and redness of the skin. Quite rare is something more serious than the above symptoms. On the street during this period, allergy sufferer becomes heavier, and indoors - it is easier, up to the fact that the manifestations of the disease can almost disappear. All this gives grounds for believing that a person does not have ARI, but pollinosis.
Symptoms of pollen allergy appear in more people, so even if there were no problems in the spring before, do not automatically exclude yourself from among those who suffer from this disease - it can develop even in adulthood. And even non-serious at first glance, symptoms should not be neglected. Up to 20% of cases of diagnosed pollinosis are accompanied by difficulties with breathing and a feeling of stuffiness in the chest.
In addition to the already mentioned polyvalent, there is also cross-hay fever. This means that when sensitized to certain types of pollen, an allergic reaction to plant foods, such as nuts and even root vegetables, can also be observed.
In addition to the fact that an allergy sufferer with this kind of disease has many more forbidden products, the reaction to them can be more acute. Thus, the probability of anaphylactic shock in the case of crossed pollinosis is higher than normal.
Rarely sufferers of hay fever turn to the doctor, until the last believing that they are tormented by a prolonged cold. But sometimes the regularity still leads to thoughts, and you have to make an appointment at the polyclinic.
Usually the connection between the flowering of plants and the manifestation of symptoms is fairly obvious, it remains only to establish what exactly causes the reaction. In this case, the collection of anamnesis helps a lot, later conclusions can be confirmed with the help of a special sample. In order to carry it out, allergen is applied to the skin of the patient in small amounts, and after a while they evaluate the consequences.
In addition, laboratory diagnostics can help: a check is made of the presence of immunoglobulins E in the patient's blood that appear when a reaction occurs. So, what to do if you have an allergy (pollinosis)?
The possibilities of official medicine in combating hay fever are not too extensive. As a rule, doctors advise to fight with pollinosis using drugs of two groups: antihistamines and vasoconstrictor drops. In some cases, also used glucocorticosteroids, which have an anti-inflammatory effect and reduce the likelihood of dangerous edema. But all this only alleviates the condition during an exacerbation, but does not cure the disease itself. The most promising trend in traditional medicine is immunotherapy, in which the patient in small doses at some intervals of time is injected with an allergen. The organism gradually "gets used" to it and ceases to give a pathological reaction.
There are also some treatments for homeopaths and isopaths. Naturally, in this case, a good proven specialist should be selected, and although these methods are not too encouraged by official medicine, they can often be extremely effective when it comes to pathology such as hay fever. The patient's responses in this case should be determinative - the homeopath is best chosen by the method of "word of mouth". In folk medicine, preparations based on the following components have proved to be successful: field horsetail, chamomile, calendula, nettle, mummy, celery root, string, etc. No need to stop taking antihistamines.
It is worth noting that any additional methods of treatment should be discussed with your allergist, and with the slightest deterioration in the state of health, you must immediately stop taking drugs of plant origin. In addition, there are certain problems of compatibility of substances, so that even phytotherapy should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist.
As you know, any disease is easier to prevent than cure. This also applies to allergies. Despite the fact that it is impossible to hide from the pollen, it is possible to significantly reduce the probability of a pathological reaction to it. For this, the following measures should be taken:
- Maximum limit contact with any confirmed allergens. Sometimes forbidden foods are very welcome, but you should not take risks. Even if the allergy manifests itself in the form of harmless urticaria, you can get a reaction to completely new substances that were not the cause of sensitization before.
- In time to identify and treat any infectious diseases. Prolonged inflammatory processes may well provoke an immune response to substances that were not previously irritants.
- Carry out pre-season training - take drugs that reduce susceptibility to pollen allergens.
Well, it's not that complicated. Nevertheless, they can not only reduce the likelihood that an allergy will occur, but also significantly facilitate its course if the disease is already there.
Changing the diet during the active flowering of plants can significantly alleviate the condition of allergic. First, it is necessary to exclude from your diet semi-finished products, fast food, and also any kinds of honey. Secondly, cross allergens, even if they have not been previously observed, it is also better not to eat, and if this is not possible, try at least to treat them thermally: boil, stew, bake, etc. Thirdly, in Period of exacerbation should refrain from the use of exotic and simply unfamiliar products. In severe cases, it is better to exclude from the diet any potential allergens. At the same time it is recommended to use more fermented milk products, as well as lean meat and green apples. A specialized diet for hay fever can be either part of the treatment prescribed by the doctor or be practiced independently.
Consequences of ignoring
As you know, the allergy may not appear immediately, but only after accumulation in the body of a certain amount of irritants. But more often pollinosis is a disease, the symptoms of which grow with the passage of time, if ignored and not treated, while continuing to contact pollen.
There are 4 degrees of severity of the course of this disease - from mild, episodic signs to very serious, life-threatening conditions. In some cases, especially with adverse heredity, seasonal bronchial asthma may even develop. In this case, pills and drops in the nose will not work, so do not ignore the allergic pollinosis. And if there are any suspicions of a reaction to pollen, it is better to go straight to the doctors and not bring the case to the droppers.