The immune system of the child is completely weak when it is born. All useful substances the kid receives with the mother's milk. The same applies to antibodies that help crumbes cope with all kinds of infections and colds. The only thing that a product filled with a useful flora can not cope with is an allergy.
What is an allergy?
Definition of allergy implies various reactions of the immune system in the form of skin rashes, mucus edema, itching, shortness of breath, rhinitis and anaphylactic shock.
It must be said that more than 50% of the world's population suffer from various kinds of allergic reactions. It can be like banal food intolerance, and acquired over time reaction to pollen of plants, any detergents or animal hair.
When an alien body enters the body, the entire immune system is activated to fight the "offender of order". Ready antibodies try to block the allergen by covering it with a membrane. Thus, antibodies IgE, IgG4 appear in the body. In the interaction of allergens and these antibodies, histamine and other mediators are released, which promote the appearance of an immediate allergic reaction. In total, there are four types of antibodies, respectively, capable of triggering four types of allergies.
The list of allergens is wide enough, and each has its own agent of an undesirable reaction. It can be:
- citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, tangerines);
- dust mites;
- wool of domestic animals;
- egg yolk or protein;
- flower and vegetable pollen;
- potato starch;
- red pigment in vegetables and fruits (lycopene and anthocyanin).
Some also have intolerance to animal proteins - cottage cheese, meat, milk.
In addition, the emergence of allergies is associated not only with the consumption of products, but also with environmental factors: air pollution, water, increased radioactive background, etc.
It is also proved that the allergy is inherited. So, arising on the body of the baby rashes and peeling are associated with the production of IgE antibodies, which give an immediate reaction to the antigen found in the body. This reaction is called "atopy" and is hereditary, but it can manifest itself at different ages.
What can be an allergy?
In order to determine the list of allergens that threaten the health of a child or an adult, doctors suggest making tests for allergies. Thus, during the week, it is possible to exclude all antigens that can cause undesirable reactions.
The modern method of allergic skin tests allows you to do not more than fifteen tests in one session. To carry out this study on the forearm of the patient with a sterile scarifier, small scratches are made into which the powder is applied - the allergen. Already in the first 15 minutes, the body's reaction will show whether one of the reagents is an antigen for the test person.
Redness, flushing, itching - these are the results that the doctor is waiting for. But the downside of such testing is the possible falsity of positive results. In addition, scarification skin tests can cause deterioration of the patient's condition. These tests can not be performed in children under three years of age, with fever and other infections.
Another method of researching allergens helps to check what allergies can be, by using blood from a vein. Such an analysis provides a detailed picture of the presence of antibodies in the body and their responses to a particular antigen.
The uniqueness of the method is that the obtained biomaterial is decomposed into fractions, and then applied to a special paper plate with already prepared antigens. After a while, if they react, then on the panel appear darkening in places with the desired antigen.
This method gives 99% of the correct results and is the most accurate for today.
What is the pediatric panel of allergens?
To carry out analyzes using the pediatric panel of allergens, blood sampling is also necessary. At the moment, such an analysis is the most accessible and safe. It can be carried out even for children from 6 months.
The analysis is done within a week. For emergency cases, a quick interpretation of the results in just two days is provided. Screening is carried out only in a specialized laboratory by qualified specialists.
The pediatric panel of allergens makes it possible to identify antigens of more than twelve types of the most common allergies.
How to prepare for the analysis
To conduct an analysis, it is necessary to give blood in the morning on an empty stomach. If the patient is taking any medications, you should visit a specialist and ask them to cancel them one week before the scheduled blood collection.
Adults who are going to take the test must give up bad habits (smoking, drinking) three days before the test. Children who received a routine vaccination, can donate blood only three months after vaccination.
Before the procedure, the attending physician should conduct an oral questioning or questionnaire of the patient, his close relatives and the people with whom he lives. Thus, primary selection takes place, and the doctor can erase some allergens that are not found in the patient's daily life.
The plus of this survey is accurate information about hereditary diseases, drugs taken by relatives, bad habits and dietary norms.
How to understand the results
The pediatric panel of allergens is filled with those substances that can cause a reaction in the patient. What exactly it will be, the doctor finds out during the questioning.
The obtained indicators are divided from the lowest to the critical:
- 0.36-0.8 low;
- 0,8-3,6 - average;
- 3,6-17,6 - moderately high;
- 17,6-51 - high;
- 51-100 - very high;
- more than 100 - critical.
It is worth remembering that the sooner a correct diagnosis is made, the sooner doctors will be able to prescribe adequate therapy. The correctness of the results depends entirely on the patient. After all, if he follows the recommendations of a specialist, the end result will not be long in coming.
First and foremost, the pediatrician will prescribe a diet that excludes all products that react more than 0.9% of the interaction with the antigen. If strong skin rashes and itching are present, the pediatrician may prescribe tableted antihistamines (or syrup if the baby is less than 2 years old), and ointments that will reduce itching and redness.
It is worth remembering that not always the cause of the rash or itching is an allergy. Improper food, dry food, a lot of fatty and fried can lead to a malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and liver.
If the pediatric panel of allergens has not given results, it is necessary to address to the gastroenterologist and to pass or take place full inspection at it or him. Banal dysbiosis can also give unpleasant consequences in the form of rashes, itching, flaking.