The activity of the sebaceous glands directly depends on the activity of sex hormones (the problem of adolescents, in the first place, in newborns - the reaction to the mother hormones, which is received by a child with human milk).
Acne vulgaris (pathogenesis) - with increasing activity of sex hormones (androgens, testosterone), the synthesis in the sebaceous glands of fat (fat) increases. The number of sebaceous glands per cm² of skin is the same in both sexes, the disease is more severe in boys.
- T-zone of the face;
Functions of sebum (fat):
- hydrolipid protection;
- mechanical protection.
Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of acne
The beginning of the process: hypersecretion of the sebaceous gland with its hypertrophy under the influence of active stimulation of hormonal components.
There are three types of seborrhea:
- oily - a more liquid condition of fat due to the predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while the client has a fat, porous skin, looks "sloppy" ("fat flows");
- dry (thick) seborrhea - dense composition; with oily skin there is a feeling of contraction, since the skin is constantly dehydrated, but fat;
- mixed - in the region of the T-zone, liquid seborrhea is observed, and on the cheeks - dry.
If there is a lot of fat on the surface of the skin, but the pH of the skin is neutral or slightly alkaline, it contributes to the inflammatory process (seborrheic dermatitis), as favorable conditions for the life of bacteria and fungi are created. Their "favorite" areas are the wings of the nose, the nasolabial zone, the interbrother zone. With an eye on the etiology of acne, treatment is begun with antifungal drugs (clotrimazole).
The problem is solved with proper home skin care, the basis of which is cleansing for oily problem skin:
1) cleansing with gel or milk;
tonic for oily skin;
2) moisturizing - moisturizing cream (from the home care line);
3) protection against ultraviolet rays - the remedy should be very "light" (example "Antimat" on grapefruit extract, "Acne").
Skin Care Salon:
1) skin cleansing - manual mechanical cleaning, especially for seborrheic skin, once a week, then hardware cleaning methods (supporting) - ultrasonic, vacuum (especially for liquid seborrhea), brashing;
2) hardware techniques - Darsonval, ultrasound for the introduction of drugs into the skin, electroplating with Zn and Cu preparations;
3) cryo-massage (liquid nitrogen);
4) Jacquet massage - drains the lymph drainage well, increases blood circulation, cleanses the sebaceous glands - 2-3 times a week 10-15 procedures;
- clay - well cleaned, dried (if you apply a thin layer of clay), saturate with minerals, absorbing effect (if you impose a thick layer of clay). Method - a thick layer of clay on the layer of gauze, and on top - foil, so that the clay does not dry, for 20-30 minutes; thin layer for 5 minutes, a maximum of 7 minutes. You can alternate procedures with a thick and thin layer of clay;
- mud - are conducted by the same method;
- algal - well moisturize and soothe the skin, it is better to use a material based on spirulina (immunity is stimulated);
- gel - moisturizing mask for an ultrasonic procedure - it is better to use with calendula or aloe vera.
- deep cleansing;
- cream on the way out.
- deep cleansing;
- Jacquet massage;
- cream on the way out.
After achieving the desired purification effect, supportive procedures are carried out: vacuum, mask, home care correction.
The second stage of the inflammatory process - hyperkeratosis of the follicle of the sebaceous gland - is characterized by a fatty porous skin with the formation of multiple gums (sebaceous horny plugs), the color of which is different for clients depending on the degree of fat oxidation.
Comedones can be open and closed. An open gum - the cork is in the mouth of the gland duct. Closed gum - the mouth is narrow and sinuous, they are most often inflamed, are in the deep layers of the dermis, inflammation is painful.
In the salon mechanical cleaning of such comedones, the Vidal needle is used — we enter it into the mouth and expand it with circular movements, then squeeze out the contents.
In the home care means with fruit, glycolic or mandelic acids are used.
Other salon procedures are the same as for the initial process of acne: cleansing, massage, hardware techniques. Necessarily superficial chemical peels, without them there will be no desired effect, 6-8 procedures once a week with mandatory application of home care products that contain fruit acids. It is important to have regular home skin care.
The third stage of the inflammatory process - propionbacteria multiply in a closed cork gland, inflammation arises as a result of their vital activity. The intensity of inflammation is no longer dependent on the amount of skin fat, but on the immunological inflammation of the skin. At this stage, papules and pustules appear.
In the treatment at this stage, therapeutic cleansing with a violation of the skin, but first you need to calm down this inflammation. For this, Darsonval, cryo-massage, anti-inflammatory masks are used.
When there is a partial decrease in inflammation, then proceed to face cleaning, but it is important to break the process into several stages (after 5-7 days, clean the different zones in turn).
Neither ultrasound procedures, nor vacuum, nor brushing are not used when there are papules or pustules on the skin. Massages are also not carried out.
At medical cleansing, pustules are first removed, in the next stage - gums. Method of cleaning the pustule: using a cotton swab, lubricate with antibacterial substance, then we make a puncture with a needle, with two fingers wrapped in a gauze napkin, squeezed out from different sides, then treated with a solution of hydrogen peroxide, then with a solution of ethyl alcohol, locally with salicylic alcohol. Only then the general cleaning is carried out.
Treatment at a cosmetologist
In the treatment of inflammation, the cosmetologist does not use antibiotics, at this stage, if necessary, refer to a dermatologist. In the arsenal of a cosmetologist for the treatment of inflammation there are:
- essential oils (tea tree, conifers - fir, cedar, citrus - grapefruit, lemon), it is important to remember that oils in pure form on the skin are not applied, can be used in the aroma. lamp during procedures; feature of oils of menthol and lavender - they penetrate deep into the skin;
- minerals: zinc, copper, sulfur ("Zinerit" is a complex external preparation - erythromycin with zinc, "Curiosine" (gel) - zinc with hyaluronic acid, the advantage of this gel - does not overdry the skin), it is good even at the second stage "Skinoren »(Gel) - a drug of external use - azelaic acid (antimicrobial substance) - normalizes the activity of the sebaceous glands, but the effect comes in 1 month, and you need to use 2-3 months at least, in the summer, apply to the skin only in the evening, as it is strongly bleached epidermis; zinc and copper are used in electroplating (a feature of this procedure is that it can be used for acute inflammation);
- salicylic acid - use 1-2% solution as a kamadonolytic, and 20% solution is already like a peeling;
- plant extracts - witch hazel, echinacea, aloea (stimulating effect), walnut (astringent effect), chamomile, string, willow.