In the modern world, everyone has the right to free movement. In order to implement it, it is enough to make convenient entrances and approaches to all kinds of buildings.
The ramps work well for this task. However, it is not enough to make them as necessary. Having said that there was enough materials, or there was not more space. These are just excuses. If you do, it's right. And for this you need to know what the ramp for the disabled is, the size of its parts and the requirements that it must meet.
What is a ramp and what are its parts?
If you want to connect two horizontal surfaces, which are located at different levels, then between them set the steps. In situations where there is no physical possibility to climb the ladder, it is replaced by a plane under the slope. This construction is called a ramp. When properly designed, it is able to provide easy and unhindered movement to the height of the mechanisms with the wheels.
The ramp construction, which meets the requirements of GOST, always consists of three parts. Each of them is mandatory and can not be ruled out.
So, the ramp is formed:
- from the level ground in front of him;
- surface that is inclined;
- and a platform in its upper part.
To get a convenient ramp for the disabled, the dimensions of each of its elements must be strictly measured out. Otherwise, it will be difficult or almost impossible to use them.
Types of ramps
It is installed in those places where its long-term use is expected. Usually this is the entrance to a building. Such structures may have one or more spans. Their number depends on the height of the stairs and the availability of free space in front of the entrance.
This design is convenient in places where free space is limited. It has a special fastening, located on the wall or railings. As necessary, you can fold and dismantle the ramp for the disabled. The dimensions of the hinged structure should be made in such a way that it can easily be moved to the working position and back from the sitting position in the chair.
This group of ramps, in turn, is divided into several types: roll-ramps, ramps and sliding structures. The first of these lists are small in size. In addition, their peculiarity is that they can be folded like a rug. Ramps are also small and used to overcome low obstacles, such as curbs. A sliding or telescopic ramp extends from a hidden space and can be installed anywhere in the ladder.
Dimensions of ramp sites
Flat horizontal surfaces must be present at the beginning and end of the structure. If the ramp is long or has turns, then such areas become larger. Then they will be placed at the end of each lift. The grounds should not be narrower than the width of the ramp and very short. They must freely fit a wheelchair. And in this space should be convenient and turn around. Thus, the ramp for disabled people, the size of the site is within the values: the width is twice that of its span, and the length is at least 1.5 m - it will be quite convenient. On it you can safely remove your hands from the wheels and do not risk slipping.
Width and length of the structure
They should be such that the wheelchair easily fit on the ramp for the disabled. Dimensions - width and length - are clearly regulated by GOST. They differ for designs with one-sided and two-way traffic. In the first case, the width must be at least 90 cm or 1 m. If the ramp is provided for movement in two directions, the width is doubled.
The maximum length of the lifting surface must not exceed 36 meters. And the length of one inclined section can not be more than 9 m. This means that after this interval a turning platform is necessary.
On the edges of inclined surfaces must be mounted beads. Their height should be at least 5 cm. They are necessary in order to prevent possible slipping of the wheelchair with the disabled. Their absence is allowed only in cases when the ramp is bordered by a wall or a solid handrail is fixed along its edge.
Tilting angle of ramp surface
The slope is calculated as a private, in which the height of the ramp is divided by its length along the surface of the earth. It can be expressed as a percentage or in degrees. And it is possible to write in the form of a ratio of two numbers.
This characteristic is the main one in the design. If the bias is small, the ramp may turn out to be too long. And in the case of a very large angle on it will be impossible to enter. Therefore, they need to be accurately calculated when a ramp for the disabled is being designed. Dimensions according to GOST for slope are limited by the maximum value, which is 5% (slightly less than 3º). The lifting height for this value should not exceed 80 cm.
In exceptional cases, it is allowed to increase the slope to 10% (slightly more than 5.5º). Then the ramp is compulsorily equipped with handrails. Because the independent recovery of a disabled person on it will be difficult.
If the ramp involves two-way traffic, then the maximum grade for it is 6.7%.
Requirements for handrails
They are designed in a mandatory manner in the following cases:
- when the height of the span exceeds 15 cm;
- or the length of the inclined surface is more than 180 cm.
Handrails are limited on both sides and along the entire length of the ramp for the disabled. Their size depends on who will rise more often: adults or children. The level of the handrails is recommended to be double. The first at a height of 60-70 cm, and the second - about 90 cm, for children the first value is reduced to 50 cm.
Other requirements for ramps
- On the inclined plane, a coating should be fixed, which increases the friction. This is necessary to reduce slip on the ramp.
- All parts of the structure should not interfere with pedestrians.
- If only one person uses a concrete ramp for the disabled, the dimensions of the structure can be calculated individually for his wheelchair.
- The material of the structure should not destroy the ladder.
- The ramp is recommended to be equipped with special dampers to make its operation quiet.
It is necessary to take into account all the above points before you start to install the ramp.