When the poisons enter the body, the work of its organs is disrupted, which can lead to serious consequences. Poisoning is a violation of the vital functions of the body due to the ingress of toxic substances. In this case, there is a threat to health and even human life. Poisoning is a frequent phenomenon in modern life. And it's not always possible to get to a doctor right away. Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms of poisoning and the principles of first aid.
Reasons for the prevalence of poisoning
This problem existed at all times: a person could accidentally be poisoned by fungi or carbon monoxide, and a worker - in harmful chemical production. However, today chemistry has become firmly established in everyday life, and the likelihood of poisoning has increased many times with the increase in the number of household chemicals. The use of chemistry in everyday life has become so commonplace that people do not even think about the potential dangers of all these detergents, chemical plant protection products or the control of harmful insects. Sometimes these substances are stored in the house in easily accessible places for children. Some of them now do not have a smell, for example, dichlorvos, used as a remedy against flies.
The same danger is presented by the uncontrolled use of medications. It is difficult to be guided by the vast range of medicines that exist at the present time, each of which has its own side reactions, which largely depend on the individual characteristics of the organism. Medicines should be prescribed by a qualified doctor after a correct diagnosis, which does not always happen in reality.
Taxonomy of intoxication
A single classification of poisoning is not accepted due to the variety of toxic substances, their origin and chemical composition, the way of entering the body and the mechanism of action, severity, and so on. Symptoms of administration also depend on the type of toxin, but there are common signs that can be used to detect the phenomenon of intoxication - nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fever, and others. By the method of admission into the body distinguish:
- inhalation - the intake of poisons during breathing;
- oral, if the poisonous substances have got through the mouth;
- percutaneous, when toxins enter through the pores of the skin or wound;
By the nature of the effect on the body of toxins are:
- acute poisoning, which are characterized by a pronounced reaction of the body with a single action of toxins;
- subacute intoxications, having less severe symptoms and arising from multiple contacts with toxic substances;
- super-fast, their consequence is the death of the victim;
- chronic poisoning, occur with a gradual intake of poisons into the body in small doses and do not have enough pronounced symptoms.
By types of toxic substances poisoning can be divided into several groups.
Carbon monoxide and luminous gas poisoning
Carbon oxide is called carbon monoxide - it is a gas without color and odor, which determines its extreme danger - a person does not even feel gas poisoning, while he instantly begins his destructive work. Carbon oxide is much faster than oxygen binds to hemoglobin, forming carboxyhemoglobin, blocking the flow of oxygen to the cells. By binding to the protein of the cardiac muscle, carbon monoxide inhibits cardiac activity, and its participation in the oxidative processes of the body disrupts the biochemical balance.
A mixture of combustible gases, consisting mainly of hydrogen and methane with an admixture of carbon monoxide up to 8-14%, is called a luminous gas. It is formed in the process of oil or coal processing. Until the beginning of the last century, the rooms were illuminated with luminous gas. It was also used as fuel. Sources of a toxic substance, which is carbon monoxide, can become:
- major fires;
- production, where carbon monoxide can participate in the synthesis of many organic substances;
- exhaust gases on highways;
- gasified premises with poor ventilation;
- home, bath stoves and fireplaces with closed columns.
Gas poisoning immediately causes a severe headache. Severe poisoning can result in death. As PMP for poisoning, you need to quickly take a person to fresh air and call an ambulance, and if necessary, do artificial respiration.
These include a number of diseases that are characterized by common signs:
- sudden and acute onset of the disease;
- the relationship between the onset of the disease and the use of a particular product;
- absence of signs characteristic for infection;
- the development of the disease at the same time in a group of persons;
- a small time interval of the duration of the disease.
Thus, food poisoning is more often an acute non-infectious disease caused by a product containing a toxic substance. Food poisoning by origin is divided into three types:
- microbial occur when products containing microorganisms or their toxins are consumed;
- non-microbial are caused by plants or animals that are poisonous in nature or under certain circumstances;
- food poisoning of unknown nature.
Symptoms of administration, regardless of the nature of the toxin, are manifested by chills, weakness, vomiting, fever, diarrhea.
Measures to help with food poisoning
The nature of treatment for food poisoning depends on how quickly and accurately the diagnosis is made and the first measures are taken. More often they are treated at home. At the first signs of malaise, you should wash your stomach. If an adult has been poisoned, he needs to drink about two liters of a weak solution of potassium permanganate or a solution of baking soda to induce vomiting and purify the stomach. For absorption of those who have had time to absorb toxins into the walls of the stomach, the patient should be given activated charcoal. With diarrhea, there is a risk of dehydration, so you need a lot of drinking. If the temperature does not subside, and diarrhea and vomiting continue, you need to take the patient to the doctor.
To food poisoning is also botulism, which causes damage to the central nervous system. The first sign is general weakness and dizziness, as well as bloating, although there is no diarrhea and the temperature is normal. If you do not help quickly, the disease will quickly progress and may result in death within a few days. The first medical aid (PMP) for poisoning is the same as with any food poisoning. However, the patient must introduce a special serum against botulism, so he must be taken to the hospital immediately.
Poisoning by poisonous chemicals
Today, a very wide distribution has received means of combating weeds, harmful insects, rodents, which are used both in agriculture and in everyday life. These substances are accompanied by an instruction for use, which prescribes the rules for their storage and use. However, the systematic violation of these rules, the manifestation of negligence when working with them, periodically lead to severe poisoning both at work and at home, where dangerous pesticides are often stored in the house without thinking about the likelihood of terrible consequences.
Pesticides are organic compounds of chlorine, phosphorus, mercury, copper compounds or carbamic acid derivatives. These substances can affect the internal organs by a different mechanism, however, in any case, the consequences will be the heaviest. Chemical poisoning gives such early signs as sweating, increased salivation, an excited state. Then, convulsions and vomiting may begin. The victim should be immediately taken to the doctor, and before that, provide first aid measures. If the poison has got on a skin, it is necessary to wash out this place a stream of water. If a poisonous substance enters the body, you should rinse the stomach (provided that the person is conscious). The intestines can be cleansed with enemas. And to prevent the absorption of poison into the body, it is necessary to give the sorbents to the victim - activated carbon and enveloping substances, for example, Almagel, in its absence - starch.
Further measures to neutralize the poison should be taken already in the hospital, since the victim must enter an antidote, the choice of which depends on the type of poison. Chemical poisoning is a very dangerous phenomenon, therefore, when working with pesticides, one should not forget about safety rules and protective equipment.
If acid has got on a skin, it is necessary to wash out quickly this place a stream of cold water. If the acid gets inside, a burn of the oral mucosa, larynx, and stomach occurs and a sharp pain immediately arises. Usually, there is poisoning with 80 percent acetic acid, the symptoms of which are voice hoarseness, pulmonary edema and suffocation. In addition to the burn, the poison is absorbed and the internal organs are affected. In more severe cases, vomiting and fever, acute pain in the stomach, which can cause shock, there is a risk of kidney failure and death.
First-aid measures for the injured person before ambulance arrival are to wash the stomach. Carefully, in small portions give him to drink cold water, you can also swallow ice in small pieces, put it on your stomach. Rinse the stomach with milk or water with egg whites - one twelve proteins should be added per liter of milk. Wash with a two percent slurry of burnt magnesia, but in no case can you give a solution of baking soda - between acid and soda there will be a chemical reaction with the formation of gases, the pressure of which on the walls of the damaged stomach can even lead to its rupture.
At a poisoning with alkalis there is a strong thirst, plentiful salivation and vomiting. Since they have a greater penetrating ability, then the burns are stronger and deeper. In severe cases, there may be gastric bleeding or kidney failure. Poisoning with ammonia can also lead to the destruction of the respiratory tract and, as a result, pulmonary edema. Assistance with alkali poisoning consists in washing the stomach with a large volume of water. Further assistance can be provided only by a doctor, therefore, as soon as possible, the victim must be taken to the hospital. Under steady-state conditions, the probe is washed with water or milk with egg whites. This solution neutralizes the alkali. Can also be washed with weak solutions of citric acid or acetic acid.
Drug medications designed to heal the disease and restore health to the person can themselves cause the most severe intoxication. Poisoning will occur if a person has exceeded the dose indicated by the doctor, or has mixed the medicine. Often, people start taking medications on their own, doing self-medication. It happens that the medicine gives a strong allergic reaction.
In all these cases, acute intoxication occurs, the severity and consequences of which depend on the type of medicine, the state of health of the victim, the dose taken and the time of exposure of the substance to the body. The first signs of poisoning are dizziness, abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. Then, diarrhea, loss of consciousness may begin, then the victim's condition will only worsen, unpredictable consequences are possible.
The answer to the question of what to do if poisoned with medicines depends on the active substance that caused the poisoning, since an antidote is required. Professional assistance can only be provided by a doctor, therefore, immediate need to call an ambulance. However, before her arrival, some urgent measures can be taken:
- if poisoning has occurred, you should give the patient to drink several glasses of warm water;
- it is necessary to induce vomiting;
- if necessary, then repeat the rinsing of the stomach;
- after cleansing the stomach, several tablets of activated carbon should be given to the victim;
- should give the victim plenty of drink, you can two-percent solution of baking soda.
The doctor needs to be called even if it seems that the poisoning is easy, because the victim's condition can suddenly deteriorate sharply.
Alcohol poisoning is a toxic effect on the body of ethyl alcohol and its decay products. You can poison yourself with other alcohols - methyl, isopropyl and others, which are strong poisons, but this will already be a chemical poisoning. Intoxication with ethanol occurs gradually, as its concentration in the body increases, and it is impossible to determine the degree of its severity at home, so it usually focuses on the stages of intoxication of a person who are distinguished by three.
- The first stage is characterized by slight intoxication, in which the concentration of ethyl alcohol in the blood of a person reaches two percent. Nevertheless, the initial symptoms of alcohol exposure to the central nervous system are already visible - euphoria appears, the pupils are dilated, and speech becomes a bit confused.
- The second stage begins at two to three percent of the ethanol content in the blood. A person is no longer able to control his speech and movements, and in the morning he feels nausea, weakness and other signs of poisoning, including vomiting.
- The third stage is the heaviest, the concentration of alcohol in the blood becomes higher than three percent, which can lead to dangerous intoxication. In this condition, breathing disorders, convulsions, up to cardiac arrest can occur. Everything depends on the amount of the body's drunk and protective powers.
Alcohol intoxication is a very common phenomenon, and everyone should know what to do if they are poisoned with ethyl alcohol. If the condition is of moderate severity, then it is necessary to induce vomiting, and then to wash the stomach with a large amount of pure water without manganese or soda. After that, you should take any sorbents - you can immediately several tablets of coal.
With severe poisoning, the measures of assistance will be completely different - in no case can you induce vomiting so that the victim does not choke in it, rinsing of the stomach is also ruled out. We must urgently call an ambulance, and while she comes, give the patient the feasible help - lay him on his side, clean the mouth of saliva, mucus, if necessary, make artificial respiration. Other necessary actions can be carried out only in a hospital.
Most of the poisoning is due to negligent treatment of the requirements for the storage or use of various toxic substances or compliance with sanitary standards for food. First of all, sanitary education of the population and control over the implementation of sanitary instructions are necessary to prevent poisoning.