In orthopedics, the procedure for replacing part of the damaged joint is often used. However, unlike hip arthroplasty. which passes without complications and is well tolerated, the replacement of the knee joint is more difficult, and complications may arise, such as:
- infectious processes in the place of installation of the endoprosthesis;
- in the patella possible tearing or tearing of the ligament;
- thrombosis in the legs;
- violation of the integrity of the femur (fracture).
Due to the presence of such complications, people leave such dissimilar testimonials. At the same time, endoprosthetics of the knee joint can be performed without any difficulties.
It is worth noting that 10 years ago there were more patients with various complications after this joint replacement method. Over time, everything improved - this is an improvement in the quality of the prosthesis itself, as well as the process of the operation itself. An important function in the restoration performs the rehabilitation period and a set of necessary exercises for a speedy recovery. These factors greatly reduced the likelihood of problems in the postoperative period.
When do you need joint replacement?
The knee joint is a joint of the condylar complex, the bony parts of which are covered with protective cartilage consisting of fibers of collagen and chondrocytes, the germ layer and the main substance. Thanks to the articular cartilage and the substance secreted by it, the necessary movements occur. The synovial membrane covers all articular surfaces, thanks to its assistance, the necessary fluid is produced to prevent friction in the joint.
Due to various diseases, degenerative processes of the articular cartilage begin, hence the change in the shape and orientation of the knee. In the presence of such diseases at the initial stage, it is necessary to conduct medical treatment, which will improve the condition of the cartilage and remove the inflammatory process.
In the later stages, when the destruction of cartilage and friction is already taking place, in this case we recommend surgery on the knee joint for prosthetics by placing a metal or plastic implant in place of the destroyed joint.
Indications for implantation
- Deformation of the joint with age.
- Deformity of the joint, accompanied by inflammation.
- Osteoarthritis dysplastic.
- The presence of a dead area in the joint.
Potential patients - people who have:
- Restriction of movement with persistent severe pain.
- Significant change in the shape of the joint.
- Common cases of loss of the normal functioning of the knee joint are characteristic diseases. This is arthritis after injury, fracture, rupture or sprain and others.
- With rheumatoid polyarthritis, inflammation and compaction of the synovil membrane occurs, due to which active production of joint fluid begins, which leads to destruction of the joint.
- The emergence of osteoarthritis in the elderly, which is characterized by a deterioration of mobility and wear and tear of the joint.
What is the benefit of implanting an artificial joint?
Knee replacement surgery is performed to relieve or completely remove pain for up to fifteen years. An artificial implant, similar and suitable anatomically, is inserted in place of a destroyed joint.
After the operation on the knee joint was successful, patients notice an increase in the range of motion. Quality of life is changing dramatically. Therefore, many people leave positive feedback. Endoprosthetics of the knee joint in most cases passes without complications, which leads to a person’s speedy recovery and return to the usual life.
Complications associated with endoprosthetics
The operation on the knee joint is also associated with the occurrence of a number of risks, as with any other surgical procedure. Such risks include blood loss, exacerbation of chronic diseases in the elderly, thrombus formation in the lower extremities, infectious processes at the site of implant insertion and in urinary tract. Recently it becomes rare cases.
One of the worst options is the formation of an infectious process, the treatment of which is quite difficult and very expensive. Often, in case of a complication of this kind, only removal of the foreign body from the body, in this case, an endoprosthesis, can help. There is a percentage of people more prone to infection than others, including rheumatoid arthritis, overweight, patients who need to take hormone drugs.
Terms of operation
An established prosthesis can last up to fifteen years, in some cases even longer, however, with wear and when the implant loosens, a repeated operation on the knee joint is possible, that is, replacement or re-implant replacement. In the event of pain before a ten-year period or loosening, an operation is also necessary.
The process of arthroplasty
The duration of the implantation operation can be 2-3 hours. Before surgical intervention is carried out mandatory prevention of infection. Before the operation, the patient is given spinal anesthesia.
To install the endoprosthesis, it is necessary to remove the destroyed part of the joint and the patella, also the doctor aligns the curved axis of the leg, if necessary, carries out the restoration of ligaments.
Modern prostheses made from high-quality and non-corrosive materials allow the leg to bend up to 150 degrees. Some after the operation left positive feedback. Endoprosthetics of the knee joint makes it possible to bend the knee by 75 degrees already before discharge. However, one should never forget about the rehabilitation period, without which the treatment would not be complete.
An important reminder will be that the operation in most cases takes place under local anesthesia, that is, in the waking state. However, you can express your wish to the anesthesiologist or surgeon to get general anesthesia, if possible. You have to be very brave and patient to calmly listen to the sounds that accompany the procedures of prosthetics.
After the operation, the lack of sensitivity and functioning of the lower extremities is considered normal. During the intervention, the patient loses a large amount of blood, blood transfusions are carried out, the necessary medications for anesthesia and antibiotics are administered.
Further, for several days, the state of the patient’s vital signs (HR, pressure, ECG, change in blood parameters) is monitored.
In the absence of deterioration and normalization of the condition, the patient is transferred in a day from reanimation to a simple ward.
Rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty
After installing the endoprosthesis, the rehabilitation period lasts on average about 3 months, but it can take longer, it depends on the patient's condition.
Obligatory recommendation are daily loads and exercises after knee joint arthroplasty to restore its functioning.
Most often, the patient spends the rehabilitation period in a specialized clinic (about one month).
Stages of the rehabilitation period
After the operation, the patient must stay for about two months in the clinic and perform the exercise specified by the doctor. With an increase in pace, an improvement in the motor activity of the joint will be observed, which will lead to an early return to the normal course of life. It is also possible discharge from the clinic.
After staying in a rehabilitation center (after 2-3 months), the patient is recommended to continue physical activities in the form of swimming, walking and yoga sessions. It is worth remembering that excessive physical activity is contraindicated.
Rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty includes a set of exercises that help overcome stiffness of movements, increase muscle strength in the joint, reduce pain.
Begin with a small pace and stress, gradually moving to more complex, to adjust the physiotherapist. It is recommended to avoid too active sports so that it is not traumatic for a new joint.
A set of necessary exercises for daily execution (4-5 times a day):
- Ankle - flexion-extension with a gradual increase in pace, starting from 5 and reach 12.
- Reduction of the front femoral muscles for 5 seconds.
- Reduction of the posterior femoral muscles for 5 seconds.
- Raising the leg in a straightened state.
- The contraction of the muscles of the buttocks for 5 seconds.
- Extension-flexion of the lower limb in the knee joint.
- Thigh to put aside.
- Lift the straightened leg to the level of 45 degrees and hold it up for 5 seconds.
- The leg stroke in the straightened state to the level of 45 degrees and the delay in this state up to 5 seconds.
- The use of the apparatus "Dikul".
Contraindications to the procedure of prosthetics
- Self movement is not possible.
- Heart Disease and CAS.
- Thrombus formation with inflammation.
- Pathological impairment of respiratory function, respiratory failure of the chronic type.
- Infectious processes.
- Neuromuscular pathology.
- Mental disorders.
Types of endoprostheses
Modern prostheses have a protective function and are divided as follows:
- prosthesis directly to the joint surface;
- single pole.
The prosthesis is fixed in several ways:
In order for the implanted prosthesis to serve for a long time, high-quality anti-corrosion and wear-resistant, and most importantly, biocompatible materials are used in production:
Many people need to analyze various reviews in order to decide on an operation. Knee arthroplasty is performed by a doctor taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient's physiology.
Knee joint replacement in Moscow, Israel, Turkey, Lithuania, Germany is carried out by qualified specialists who know their business.
There are quite a few clinics that specialize directly in the operation of replacing a joint or its parts, including performing knee joint arthroplasty. The cost of endoprostheses corresponds to the quality of the materials of which it is composed, and the company that produces it. Feedback on foreign clinics is often much better (especially with regard to the rehabilitation period). However, in Russia, this intervention is carried out at a high level.
Thanks to many years of experience and high qualification, the doctor will select the most appropriate biocompatible prosthesis and, without the development of complications, endoprosthetic replacement of the knee joint. The price of this procedure depends on the complexity of the operation and the cost of the prosthesis.