Oncomarkers are specific molecules that circulate in the blood. They are produced in the human body in response to cancer, as a rule. If their level is elevated, this may indicate a progressive oncological process in the body. Oncomarkers CA, the decoding of which will be shown below, is used in the diagnosis of cancer, detection of metastases. In many cases, they save the patient, helping to identify the neoplasm at an early stage of development. The principle of oncomarkers is to detect tumor cells. With the development of cancer, cancer cells are very active. However, not always deviations mean cancer. It can be an inflammatory process in the body, a liver or kidney disease. For a more accurate diagnosis, doctors use CA and CEA oncoproteins simultaneously with other tests, such as biopsy, scanning. There are several indicators by which specialists have the opportunity to determine the diagnosis and prescribe the treatment of the disease.
Why do tests for the presence of antigens?
Tumor markers are found in the form of enzymes, proteins, hormones and antigens. Different tumors can distinguish distinct markers from each other. Happens, the tumor produces several, and sometimes one. For example, the CA marker 19.9 indicates cancer in the pancreas and stomach. The analysis of blood can also assess the dynamics of pathology, the effectiveness of therapeutic measures.
REA is a protein that is used as an oncomarker for many cancers. Often, its presence indicates a cancer of the large intestine. Often, the level of CEA increases with oncological pathologies of the mammary glands, uterus, its neck. Antigen is also detected in the presence of neoplasms in the stomach, lungs, pancreas, gall bladder, liver. That is why REA is considered a nonspecific oncomarker. The level of this antigen can increase and with some inflammatory processes, and with benign tumors. Therefore, not always a deviation upwards is a mandatory confirmation of oncology. If, in the treatment of malignant formation, the concentration of antigen becomes larger, this means that the development of the tumor continues, and therapy does not bring results. Other incomarkers of CA may also testify to the ineffectiveness of the measures taken. The interpretation of the results is carried out depending on the age and sex of the patient. Tests for these antigens allow, among other things, to identify a relapse of the pathology after therapy.
There are different oncomarkers: CA 15-3, the decoding of which allows to identify early stages of metastasis, is used for tumors in the mammary gland, 19-9 and others. It should be said that the test for their presence is not an absolutely accurate indicator of the presence of oncology. The blood test is informative, but not the only method of diagnosis. The test for the oncocomarker 15-3, whose norm is 25.0 U / ml, allows detecting a tumor not only in the mammary gland. Neoplasm can occur in different internal organs. To determine the focus, assess the activity of cancer cells apply different tests. For example, the cancer marker CA 15-3 is also elevated in malignant processes in the lungs. Therefore, it is not right to diagnose only according to the results of a laboratory test. What are the use of oncomarkers for? CA 15-3, the decoding of which is important in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, contributes to the selection of the most optimal therapeutic method. In addition, antigens help diagnose benign formations. At the same time, their level may not change or increase, but in a small amount.
Lactic and pancreatic cancer
These tumors are malignant in nature. Breast cancer is formed from her tissue and is characterized by high progression, growth and metastasis. Oncomarkers CA 15-3, 19-9 belong to glycoproteins of the mucin type. They are determined on the epithelium of the secreting cells. By the rate of increase in the level, one can draw a conclusion about the course of the course of the disease and its complications. With metastases and exacerbation of the disease, cancer markers CA 15-3, 19-9 in their growth level can outpace the upcoming symptoms up to 9 months.
The starting material for laboratory testing is blood from the vein. The sample retains its properties at a temperature of +2. +8 ˚С during the week. Do not reusable. The specialists remind that if the level in which the CA 15-3 oncologist is located, the norm of which is indicated above, deviates from the standard values, this does not indicate a cancer. This gives grounds for a detailed survey.
Causes and forms of cancers in the mammary gland
Oncological disease develops, as a rule, with hormonal failures in the body, menopause, a decrease in ovarian activity, a decrease in progesterone and estrogens. There are several forms of malignant tumors of the mammary glands:
- Nodal. This is a common form. It is distinguished by the presence of a dense nodule measuring 0.5 cm or more.
- Pseudoinflammatory (mastitis-like).
- The armor.
All these forms are aggressive and grow very fast. The tumor has no precise contours. Nodular and diffuse forms are characterized by inflammatory processes, an expression of pain in the mammary gland and skin, an increase in temperature to 39 degrees, reddening of the skin. Therefore malignant formation of the mammary gland is often mistaken for an ordinary inflammatory process. In the case of the armored form, the malignant tumor covers the mammary gland and reduces it in size, as if covering it with a "crust".
Symptoms of breast cancer
With an independent examination of the chest, you can notice the retraction of the nipples, changes in their shape and color, the appearance of discharge from the chest, swelling of the breasts, a discoloration of the skin on the chest. One of the main signs of the progression of breast cancer is the manifestation of mastopathy. In the initial stage, there is a small, compacted tumor that is painless. There may appear mobility of the lymph nodes in the armpits. The skin on the breast becomes wrinkled. With further development of the malignant tumor, at stages 3 and 4, the tumor significantly increases in size. As a result, the mammary gland changes in shape. On the skin, a "lemon peel" is possible. Sometimes there is a swelling of the hand. The tumor is capable of increasing at a high rate. It can be twice the size of a month to a year. Everything depends on the degree of malignancy.
Diagnosis of oncological pathologies
In the case where CA 15-3, 19-9 and others markers have a level deviating from the standard indices, additional diagnostic tests are prescribed. For example, with cancer in the mammary gland, ultrasound is recommended for lymph nodes in the armpits. This is done to check if there are metastases in them. Also recommended are chest X-ray and ultrasound of the abdominal cavity for metastatic examination. Oncomarkers CA 15-3, 19-9 and others allow to reveal in the blood proteins that are produced only by the tumor. In a healthy body, such proteins are not found. The disadvantage of some antigens is that they have low diagnostic value. For example, the cancer marker CA 15-3, the norm of which does not always indicate the absence of pathology, finds its application mainly in treated women, in order to detect metastases as early as possible.
Rules for preparation for analysis
Blood, as a rule, is recommended to be taken in the morning, from 8 to 11 hours. Before this, it is forbidden to eat any food in the last 8 hours before the tests. In the evening, a light dinner is allowed without eating fatty foods. In the case of donating blood for infection and emergency studies, you can take the test 4-6 hours after eating. Analysis for gastrin-17, total cholesterol, cholesterol-HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein, triglycerides should be given 12-14 hours after eating; test glucose-tolerant - after 12-16 hours. A prerequisite is the performance of fasting tests. During the day before giving blood, it is forbidden to drink alcoholic beverages, medicines, and exclude intensive physical activity.
How much does the analysis for the CA 15-3 oncomarker cost?
The price of the study varies from 800 to 1500 rubles. Identify cancer at an early stage is very important, because the effectiveness of treatment depends on this. It is known that a malignant tumor, detected at an early stage, can cure patients in 100% of cases.