The intestine is part of the digestive system and is divided into two parts: the large intestine and the small intestine. In turn, the colon is the rectum and colon. The article will deal with such an ailment as oncology of the intestine. Symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, causes of the disease - all these aspects will be given attention in the material presented, but first you need to understand what structure and what functions this body has.
Anatomy of the intestine
The food absorbed by the person, at first appears in an esophagus. It passes through it and enters the stomach, where the process of digestion begins. Then the food enters the small intestine, and it is at this stage that the body absorbs all nutrients from it. In the colon, which begins in the abdominal cavity, at the bottom right, the body takes water from the food. The first part of the colon, going up, is the ascending bypass gut. Then a transverse colon extends from it to the left side of the peritoneum. Further down to the abdominal cavity descends the descending colon. The large intestine ends with the sigmoid colon, rectum and the terminal part - the anal canal. In the rectum, the wastes collected from the digestion process accumulate. As a result of defecation, they are removed from the body through the anus. Next to the intestine are still lymph nodes in the size of a pea.
Oncology of the intestine, the symptoms of which will be discussed below, is often a colon cancer: in 2/3 cases the colon is affected and in 1/3 - the rectum. In other parts of the body, the tumor is extremely rare. The question of how to check the intestine for oncology is not the most important. The main thing is to know what factors can trigger the appearance of the tumor. There are three basic conditions:
- disease of the body;
There are diseases that increase the risk of cancer of this organ. These include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Patients who received such diagnoses get a predisposition to the formation of a tumor.
Oncology of the large intestine, whose symptoms are absent in the first stages of the disease, can be caused by the consumption of a large amount of food rich in proteins and fats, provided that the intake of fruits and vegetables is insufficient. In this case, the risk of developing colon cancer is significantly increased. A tumor can appear in those who abuse alcohol.
More than others, predisposed to oncology of the intestines are people whose family already had cases of such a disease. Particularly worried is the one whose close relatives suffered the cancer of this body before the age of 45 years. The higher the risk, the more cases of development of such a disease in the family. If there is a hereditary predisposition and a fear of getting sick, you should go to a specialized medical institution and take an analysis for bowel oncology. Doctors will be able to calculate the likelihood of cancer. People who are at risk should be alerted not when the first signs of bowel cancer appear, but long before that. It should be regularly monitored so that in the case of the onset of a tumor, it can be identified at an early stage.
In addition to these factors, conditions such as a sedentary lifestyle, overweight, and smoking can affect the appearance of cancer.
Oncology of the intestine: symptoms
Depending on where the tumor develops, the manifestations of cancer may also differ. The first signs of bowel oncology in case of defeat of the colon:
- sharp weight loss;
- blood during defecation both on excrement, and inside them (blood can be both light and dark);
- painful sensations in the abdominal cavity and anus;
- changes in the stool for no apparent reason (constipation or diarrhea lasting more than six weeks);
- intestinal obstruction;
- feeling of incompleteness after a bowel movement.
Oncology of the bowel symptoms can cause several others if the tumor develops in the rectum. In this case, such manifestations are possible:
- soreness in the coccyx, perineum, waist, sacrum;
- appearance in the stool of blood, mucus or pus;
- painful and frequent urge to defecate;
- the feeling of having something in the rectum;
- acquisition of feces by a feces.
There are symptoms - does it mean cancer?
Do not take the above signs as an absolute indicator of cancer. Even if they take place, this does not mean that you have an oncology of the intestine. Symptoms may indicate other diseases, such as SSCT or ulcerative colitis. In addition, do not forget that the cancer of this organ occurs usually in people after 50 years. If you belong to the younger generation, then most likely, the cause of unpleasant symptoms lies in the other.
Nevertheless, if there are signs of bowel oncology and do not disappear within a couple of weeks, but only intensify, you should immediately visit a doctor.
Rectal examination is the first step to detecting a tumor. In the course of this, the expert checks the area of the anus with a finger for the presence of swelling. The lower part of the intestine, in which the cancer most often develops, can be examined with the help of a sigmoidoscope - a flexible tube inserted into the rectum. Such manipulations by no means always allow to determine with accuracy the cause of painful symptoms. One of the main ways of how to check the intestine for oncology is a colonoscopy.
Conducting a colonoscopy
Examination is done under the condition of the emptied organ, therefore the day before the patient is prescribed the intake of laxatives, intensive drinking and washing of the intestine. The procedure itself is painless, although it can bring some discomfort.
First, the patient is administered a sedative, and then a flexible long tube is inserted into the large intestine through the anal opening. Moving it along the bends of the intestine, the doctor examines the body for the presence of anomalies. Using this tube, you can take biopsy samples and take photographs.
This is a procedure that allows you to examine the inner surface of the organ. It is quite unpleasant and tiring, and can also cause cramping pains. Prepare for the examination should be the same as with a colonoscopy. The method consists in introducing into the anus a mixture of barium with air and performing a series of X-ray photographs. Under the influence of radioactive rays, barium becomes visible, and the specialist can track the X-ray machine as it passes through the intestine and see tumors in the intestinal wall.
After the procedure for two days can be observed feces of white color - this barium is gradually eliminated from the body. It should be a few days to take a laxative drug, because the substance is capable of causing constipation.
To find out whether the cancer has spread to the rest of the body, studies such as ultrasound of the liver, CT of the liver and abdominal cavity, and chest X-ray can be conducted.
Oncology of the intestine: treatment
The main way to remove the tumor is surgery. Usually, during the operation, the tumor itself is cut out, surrounding the tissues and nearby lymph nodes. The two ends of the intestine are then connected. If this is not possible, a colostomy is carried out, which consists in removing the open end of the intestine on the skin surface of the abdominal wall and attaching the kalospriemnika. It happens that the colostomy is temporary, and after a while the surgeons again attempt to connect the ends of the intestine. If this does not work, the calico receiver remains forever. Usually this happens when the operated area is in the colon very low, next to the rectum, and then during the operation it is impossible not to disturb the anal sphincter, which controls intestinal departures.
Currently, advances in surgery have made it possible to treat intestinal cancer without colostomy. Instead of sewing by hand, the stapling apparatus is often used now, which makes it possible to perform operations on the lower part of the colon without breaking the functions of the anal sphincter.
One of the innovative methods is laparoscopic intervention, when the surgeon performs an operation through a small incision in the peritoneum, and does not disclose it completely. To the patient this approach provides a quick recovery.
Even if the tumor is completely removed, there is a chance of a relapse of bowel cancer. As far as it is large, one can learn in the course of a microscopic study of distant tumors. If the risk of returning the disease is high, the doctor prescribes treatment aimed at preventing relapse. This treatment is called adjuvant therapy, it consists in the intake of various chemicals that have a harmful effect on the causative agents of the disease.
If the tumor has developed in the rectum and has grown through the organ wall, affecting the lymph nodes, then a relapse in the pelvic organs and other parts of the body is possible. In this case, along with adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy is also performed. To this method of treatment resorted, even if cancer cells in the body did not remain.
With the help of surgical intervention, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, about half of all patients with oncology of the intestine can now be cured. The cure rates are increasing every year, which gives us hope that in the future, the deaths from this terrible illness will be much less. The main thing is to closely monitor your condition and immediately find a doctor when suspicious symptoms are detected. Be healthy!