A person is surrounded by many household appliances connected to electrical networks. In such a situation, accidental electric shock is possible. Large currents causing injury or death are rare. Of the 140-150 situations, only one case is lethal.
Practice and research show that an electric current causes temporary disorders of the body's functions (imaginary death). It is important to switch off the current that affects the victim as early as possible and provide first aid. If the accident occurred at altitude, it is necessary to prevent the fall of a person.
What to do if an electric shock occurs
First aid in case of electric shock to the injured person can not be carried out without taking precautionary measures to exclude the effect of current on the rescuers themselves.
Disposal of the person from the harmful effects can be turned off the electrical installation or the part with which the victim is in contact. It should be borne in mind that when the installation is de-energized, independent light sources (lights, candles) may be needed if the incident occurred at night or in a dark place.
If the installation can not be de-energized, remember that the injured person's body and step voltage are dangerous for rescuers.
At a voltage of up to 400V, it is possible to drag a person out of the zone of destruction for dry clothes. Do not touch it for open parts of the body, wet clothes, shoes, etc.
The use of galoshes, dielectric gloves, supports, rugs will protect people from electric shock.
If the conductor with the current is clamped in the hands of the victim, it is necessary to cut the wire with a sharp object with plastic handles or other insulating material (dry wood).
At a voltage of more than 1000V, an insulating rod and tongs are used to rescue the victim, following the instructions for using these types of devices.
Under the person who fell when struck by the voltage step, you need to slip a plywood or a dry board, insulating it from the ground.
First aid in case of electric shock
Having freed a person from the current, determine the condition of the victim and begin to provide medical assistance. If the victim is conscious, he is given a rest. Otherwise, and if there are injuries and injuries (fractures, bruises, burns, etc.), it is necessary to make first aid in case of electric shock, until the doctor arrives, or deliver the victim to the hospital.
If you lose consciousness, but have breathing, you need to place the person on a soft litter (clothes, blanket), release the body from the restraining objects (loosen the belt, unbutton the collar), remove mucus and blood from the oral cavity, create fresh air circulation, try to bring to life (give a sniff of ammonia), moisten the face with water, grind and wrap it.
If the pulse is not probed, the pupils of the eyes are dilated, and the breathing is intermittent or absent, it is necessary to remove everything that constricts the chest, release the oral cavity and start a heart massage and artificial respiration.
Portable respirator RPA-1 provides ventilation of the lungs with a rubber tube and a face mask on the patient's face. The device pumps up to 1 liter of air per cycle.
First aid in case of electric shock is performed as follows: the victim is put on his back, cleans the mouth, inserts the airway so that the tongue does not interfere with the ventilation of the lungs, and put on the mask. Belts regulate the volume of fur. Stretching the fur, atmospheric air is pumped into it. Squeezing it, the air is pumped into the respiratory tract of the victim. Passive exhalation is carried out with the help of a breathing valve on the apparatus during the next filling of the fur with air.
If the device is not available, ventilation is performed through the nose or mouth.
When preparing for artificial respiration, the jaws of the affected person are unclenched by a flat object, the mucus is removed from the oral cavity, the victim is put on his back and released from the restraining clothes. The position of the thrown head should allow air to pass through the nose and pharynx. The chin is in line with the neck, the root of the tongue opens the entrance to the larynx. The lower jaw must be pushed forward and fixed in such a position that the tongue does not sink. Performing first aid in case of electric shock, a person breathes in deeply, blows air into the victim's mouth, while holding his nostrils, until the patient's chest is sufficiently expanded ("from mouth to mouth"). Exhalation occurs passively. Adults need 12-16, for children 18-20 breaths per minute.
Restoration of breathing by taking "from mouth to nose" occurs through the nasal inputs, while the head is located in such a way that the air does not go through the mouth.
To restore the heart rhythm (pulse), the victim is put on his back. The person doing massage has a palm on the lower third of the sternum in the middle. The second hand is placed on the back of the first for more effort. When a massage is performed, 60-70 energetic pushes per minute are applied 4-5 cm down to the spine. At the end of the pressure, the hands are quickly removed.
Fibrillation of the heart is one of the possible consequences of electric shock. To restore the correct operation of this uranium, defibrillators are needed. The impulse from such a device lasts 10μs with a voltage of up to 6 kV and can reach 15-20A. After discharge of the defibrillator through the chest, the fibers in the muscle tissue of the heart are synchronized in the work.
Ventilation of the lungs and heart massage begin if the victim has a clinical death. When working in pairs, one person does a heart massage, the second - artificial respiration. The technology is described above. For one breath, you need to press the thorax 4-5 times. The operations are carried out in turn.
One person during the first aid should make to the victim 2-3 breaths 15 pressure on the chest.
Artificial breathing and cardiac massage should be performed until the heart rate and respiration are restored. The pulse on the carotid artery, the reddened skin, the pupils' reaction to light, the restored breath are signs of a person's return to life. In the absence of signs of recovery, it is necessary to continue the measures to revive before the arrival of physicians or until the appearance of symptoms of biological death (body temperature dropped to air temperature, cadaveric blemishes).