Deaf-mutes are not so rare in the human community. According to statistics, 0.4% of the total population of the Earth suffers from such a defect. Where less often there are only silent people who hear and understand speech, but are not able to respond. And this phenomenon is much more interesting than the absence and ability to hear, and the ability to talk.
Deafness and the attendant factors
From a medical point of view, it is not right to be interested in why people are born dumb. If you formulate exactly, all children are dumb - they can not talk. Almost every living newborn gives out sounds. Speech is a secondary skill that develops as a result of information received through hearing. And if a child is born deaf, then as a result of her absence, eventually he grows numb completely, that is, ceases to publish even unintelligible sounds. Thus, dumb people are not born such, but become them. But deafness can be congenital. And even if it can not be cured, and the hearing aid is unable to compensate for deafness, you can still tell a person - there are special techniques.
Silent people: reasons for not speaking
We have already come to the conclusion that dumbness is always acquired. And it can overtake a person at any age. And it can be caused by different factors. Silent people lose the opportunity to speak under the following circumstances.
- Defeat of the brain. It can be traumatic or physiological. More often, dumbness causes a blow to the head, which has come to a certain zone, brain cancer or hemorrhage into it. Often speechless patients with autism, even though everyone hears.
- Defects of organs responsible for speech. This can be a trauma to the ligaments or their deformation due to some disease. Realistic variant of language paralysis is enough to recall Sylvester Stallone, whose language is partially paralyzed, but the speech was very vague at that, until the actor began to develop it intensively. Mentioning the deprivation of this body, perhaps, is not worth it - such an outcome is highly unlikely.
- Mutism. A psychomotor disorder that results in a person stop talking. It causes severe stressful situations or concussion. Silent people at the same time understand the speech addressed to them and react to it, but they can not overcome silence themselves. In this case, dumbness can be selective - for example, only men, while with women, a person speaks freely. It is treated by disinhibitory techniques.
In the event that the opportunity to speak is lost permanently and can not be restored, a letter and the language of the dumb can help a person communicate. True, the latter can only be understood by specially trained people.
Means of communication for non-speakers
The language of the dumb is not the same as gesticulation, which people with foreigners try to explain. In this case, the gestural speech is poor and narrowly functional, while a rich lexicon, capable of conveying both artistic images, and mathematical terms, is deprived of the opportunity to speak.
The first sign language originated as far back as the 18th century: Germany and France opened the faculties of the faculty. The basis of non-verbal speech was the natural gestures, spontaneously arisen in the small communities of the deaf.
In Russia, the first center was established in 1806 in the city of Pavlovsk. It used the experience of French surdopedagogists; The Moscow school, opened for half a century later, was guided by the workings of the Germans. As a result, modern Russian surdopedagogy is a symbiosis of these two schools.
The language of dumb is individual for most languages and requires translation in much the same way as verbal speech. Attempts to create a general earth version failed - just as Esperanto did not take root.
With the finger designation of letters, the development of sign language began. The first developments in this plan date back to the 16th century. Now the dactyl does not belong to the language. It is used as a sign alphabet, for transcription of unfamiliar words, proper names, prepositions, interjections and other things.
Nemota is not a sentence
And even more serious injuries and conditions can not become an obstacle to a full and rich existence. An example of such vital activity can serve as an Englishman Stephen Hawking, a famous astrophysicist and theoretical physicist. In the prime of his creative and physical powers, the scientist began to manifest a specific type of sclerosis, which caused paralysis. And after tracheostomy, which became necessary because of severe inflammation of the lungs, he also became dumb. Only the fingers on the right hand remain movable. They control the specially designed chair and laptop, which became his voice. In the end, he was paralyzed completely, and manages the equipment by the movement of the facial muscle - the only one that retained mobility. Such restrictions did not depress the physicist: he is professor at Cambridge (a post once occupied by Newton), in 2007, he flown in weightlessness on a special plane, and in 2016 became a co-author of the project to send research vehicles to the star of Alpha Centauri.