External otitis is infectious and non-infectious. Depending on the duration, chronic and acute otitis externa are different. Also for localization, it is divided into limited and diffuse.
The causes of external otitis include bacterial or fungal infection. For its development, suitable conditions are created due to a reduced or increased amount of earwax. Lack of sulfur does not provide an opportunity to provide the necessary level of protection, while its overabundance keeps dust and moisture in the ear. One of the most favorable factors for the development of infection is a prolonged stay of water in the external auditory canal, wet or hot weather. Often, external otitis develops when the hygiene rules are not respected - careless use of the earwax or cleaning the ears with the use of sharp objects.
Occurrence of limited external otitis is caused by the appearance of an inflamed hair follicle or furuncle, the localization of which can be either outside or inside the auditory canal. Restricted external otitis manifested by pain in the ear, increasing with chewing, touching the ear area. After the abscess ripens and ruptures the pain sensations decrease. As a rule, hearing is saved. Hearing disorder is fixed only if the boil overrides the ear canal.
Diffuse form of otitis
Outer otitis of this form often affects the skin around the ear, it covers the auricle and the entire ear canal. Such otites are divided into:
Such external otitis manifested by the appearance of swelling of the skin around the ear canal, ear and concha. The patient has complaints of pain in the ear, which can be replaced by itching. Hearing can decrease due to swelling of the ear canal, thickened skin, red, edematous. If the inflammation spreads to the tympanic membrane, there is a clear discharge from the ear, a decrease in hearing, the eardrum itself becomes red.
The manifestations of such otitis may differ and depend on the type of fungus: the patient has complaints of liquid discharge from the ear (candidiasis), or the appearance of crusts and plugs in the auditory meatus (aspergillosis). One of the characteristic symptoms is itching in the ear. The rest of the symptomatology does not differ from bacterial otitis.
Edema of the ear, autophony and hearing loss are the main signs of allergic otitis. The use of medications that cause allergic rhinitis and allergy are the main diagnostic features in which allergic external ear otitis occurs.
If the cause of otitis is skin disease, then this disease should be treated first. In the treatment of bacterial otitis, antibiotic preparations are usually administered. Fungal external otitis is treated with general antifungal therapy, since the use of local remedies can not give the desired effect. In addition, in the treatment of external otitis caused by fungi, prescribed fortifying drugs. Treatment of allergic otitis is aimed at getting rid of allergies. In this case, the doctor prescribes general antiallergic drugs and local drugs. In the treatment of limited external otitis, a furuncle is opened, purulent contents are removed, and tampons with hormonal antibacterial ointment are used to remove edema.