"Old age is not a joy" - briefly and accurately characterizes the physical and mental state of the elderly person known to all the proverb.
Old age is an inevitable period in a person's life
This is the most unwanted, nature-predetermined period of life, causing fear and impotence before understanding the inevitability of the onset of the final life stage.
Every person tries to delay the arrival of old age by any means, participating (as far as the forces allow) in public and domestic affairs, drawing on the fruits of their own labors and achievements, rejoicing at the successes of children and grandchildren. Unfortunately, the youth of the soul is powerless before the inevitability of the withering of the body.Accumulated over the years, various ailments, which at one time many waved their hand and which were taken lightly, make themselves felt at the end of life, manifesting themselves massively and simultaneously.
Old age - a powerful battery of all diseases
In a number of cases, helplessness, capriciousness, irritability, forgetfulness, touchiness, sharp mood changes are joined by specific conditions: Alzheimer's disease and dementia (decreased intelligence, senile dementia), which significantly complicates the life of both the patient himself and the people around him. Dementia in most cases is observed in the elderly, who crossed the threshold of the 80th anniversary. Those suffering from this disease forget the names of loved ones, do not recognize them, lose their orientation in time and space, the ability to dress themselves, take medicine, cook food, watch personal hygiene; They are often characterized by stupid behavior, aimless walking.
Caring for an elderly person is an important factor necessary in the declining years
An elderly person who needs care often does not realize the absurdity of his behavior, so he is not able to adequately assess what is happening. The disease progresses and makes it helpless and completely dependent on others.In this situation, care for the elderly over 80 years is borne by the shoulders of relatives and relatives, whose task is quality and constant care. Tolerance and own time are important prime values for a person whose basic condition is helplessness.
How to organize the proper care for an elderly person
The organization of care for the elderly requires compliance with a number of recommendations below.
- It is required to be constantly in the field of vision of the elderly person that he did not feel thrown and did not experience negative emotions. It is strongly recommended not to approach from behind, so as not to scare him. An important factor is communication, distracting the elderly from self-isolation and oppression.
- A friendly expression, a kind and sincere smile, an address to a man by name, constant care and care are the components on which care for elderly people over 80 years is based.
- If an elderly person has memory problems, finds it hard to recognize relatives, forgets their names, do not strain his attention unnecessarily. In such cases, it is required to address the elderly person not in an interrogative, but in approvingly approving form. For example, instead of trying to answer the question: "Who came to you?" In order to help remember the name of the visitor, it's better to say: "Your grandson Sergey has come to you" or "I'm your son Alexei". The elderly person is required to clearly demonstrate the actions that he should perform; For example, show the process of combing hair, dialing a phone number, turning on - turning off the TV.
If an elderly person is able to read the press or books, play board games, you should use this. It is necessary to conduct conversations on subjects close to the patient, which interested him in the active period of life. It can be talk about exhibitions of paintings, theatrical productions, sports competitions, news of science. Preferably reading aloud, viewing family photo albums, various illustrations.
It is undesirable to visit the elderly relative in whole groups, because a patient experiencing difficulties in keeping several objects or persons in the field of vision is quickly tired. A reasonable maximum will be a visit of 2-3 people. At occurrence of signs of fatigue, the visit should be interrupted, motivating the withdrawal understandable for the elderly person by the reason: a visit to the doctor or the fact that it is required to take the child out of the kindergarten.
Medical care for an elderly person
Modern medicine can not effectively cure constantly progressive dementia in old age. Medicinal products can only reduce or weaken individual manifestations of the disease, stop its development and postpone the final period. Therefore, daily and full-fledged medical care for elderly people, whose main tasks is:
- Ensuring the safety of the elderly. Because the most serious manifestation of changes in the old psychic is the loss of orientation in space and time. The cause of domestic injuries in old age are problems with the musculoskeletal system, decreased vision and hearing. The environment he perceives in a distorted form and often can not properly assess their own actions that can carry a danger (falling outside and inside the room, forgetting will take terrain and roads home, street injuries with unconscious violation of the rules, burn hot water while bathing, poisoning if mistakenly used Drugs, contact with the flame of a burning object).It is recommended to buy a walking stick to help with movement, remove unsuitable items from the field of vision of an elderly person, place medicines in an inaccessible place to avoid poisoning, or put them in separate boxes and sign the time of reception of everyone. Take care that the pensioner does not go out onto the balcony himself, accompany him when leaving the house. It is undesirable to change the interior inside the rooms, there should not be any objects on the floor, which can be stumbled and dropped. When a patient is in an easily accessible place (a badge, a firmly attached business card, a bracelet, an identification locket), there must always be data with his name, surname, home address, telephone numbers of relatives.
- Balanced diet. With age, metabolic processes in the body slow down, so it is worth to reduce the diet of an elderly person the content of fats and carbohydrates, as well as the consumption of salt. To prevent constipation, you need to eat foods that are high in fiber: compotes, juices, fruits and vegetables. When eating, which is difficult for the patient, you need help (a reminder of the order of food, use of cutlery, feeding from a spoon).The patient's desire to eat independently, even if he allows negligence and mistakes, should only be encouraged.
- Observance of personal hygiene. A patient, previously a physically active and clean person, can become slovenly, apathetic, in the course of the years, how to use the toothbrush, toilet, and washbasins. Chronic insomnia, negatively affecting the overall health status is another negative component of old age. For its prevention, it is required to ventilate the bedroom in a timely manner, not to stress the elderly person. On prescription of the doctor, you can use sedative medications.
Care for bedridden patients
Caring for lying-down elderly people is particularly difficult. You can wash yourself with a damp towel, use a dry shampoo to wash your hair, completely eliminating the use of water and cleansing your hair well. Hair is needed every day to comb; Long curls should preferably be shortened to avoid entanglement.
Care for the disabled elderly is often complicated by the management of their natural needs. If the patient is able to sit for at least 5 - 10 minutes and feels the urge, then a chemical toilet can be placed near the bed and planted on it on demand. At night you can wear a diaper. If a person is completely unable to sit, does not feel the urge, then it is required to use diapers for adults.
Struggle against pressure sores
One of the dangers is the occurrence of decubitus, and the older the person, the faster they are manifested. The main task in caring for bedridden patients is to prevent their formation, timely detection and treatment at the initial stage. The first sign of decubitus is the appearance of a red spot on the skin, in the center of which in the near future a kind of "wet callus" is formed. Such foci must be treated with a mixture of shampoo and vodka in a 1: 1 ratio, then lubricated with an ointment wound-healing action. The decubitus begins to develop rapidly, so the patient should be examined as often as possible (at least twice a day), paying special attention to the areas of scapula, sacrum, knees, elbows and hip joints. Caring for the elderly over the age of 80 requires the prevention of pressure sores: the patient needs to turn on the other side every 2-3 hours and change the posture of his body. Once a day, you need to do a full body massage, in which you can use a manual electric massager. Also, anti-bedsore mattresses sold in medical equipment stores or online.
Caring for an elderly person
Very often, care for an elderly person due to various circumstances can be carried out by outsiders for him.You can implement care for an elderly person in several ways:
- Registration of a will (or gift agreement) in favor of persons who care for a pensioner.
- Conclusion of the contract of lifelong maintenance is the most compromise solution between both parties. Under this agreement, property owned by a pensioner is changed to lifelong care for older people over 80 years in favor of people who provide such care.