Many medical procedures do not do without anesthesia. It is necessary in order to relieve pain, prevent shock. After all, the characteristic reaction of the body (increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, stress hormone production) can significantly affect the patient's condition. Often used medicamental sleep.
Types of anesthesia
There are two main methods of anesthesia. Local anesthesia is used to reduce pain locally. Thus the person remains in consciousness. This type of anesthesia has the following varieties. Surface method - drugs are applied to the skin (or mucous membranes), where they are absorbed and begin to act. Very often this method is used by dentists. Also this category refers to freezing. Infiltration anesthesia is used for some surgical interventions, trauma. The substance is injected into the tissue by injection. Regional anesthesia has several subspecies: epidural, conduction, spinal. In this case, the drug is injected into an area that is very close to the nerve trunk or plexus. With this method, transmission of a pain pulse is blocked. If an operation is performed on the limbs, then intravascular analgesia is possible. The anesthetic is injected into the vessels of the limb. General anesthesia inhibits the central nervous system. Muscles relax, consciousness is disturbed. It can be done by inhalation or by intravenous injection.
What is medication sleep
Sedation is a promising alternative to deep anesthesia. It is very important that a person is conscious, his reflexes are preserved. For immersion in medical sleep, special sedative drugs are injected intravenously or into the muscle. They contribute to complete relaxation, sedation, and anesthesia. Recommend this type of anesthesia to people with low pain threshold, with nervous disorders, children. The procedure is carried out by an anesthesiologist, who calculates the necessary dose of the drug. Also the specialist helps the patient to get out of this state. It is characteristic that the complex can additionally use local anesthesia. The main advantages of diving into sleep with medication are as follows. Drugs that are used, do not contain narcotic components and do not cause addiction. The respiratory center is not oppressed. In consciousness, a person comes fairly quickly - for 5-10 minutes. Thus, if medicinal sleep is used, the consequences of a negative nature are practically absent.
Levels of sedation
There are several degrees of immersion in sleep with the help of medications. The minimum level is characterized by the fact that the patient is awake, in contact with the doctor. In this case, intellectual abilities, coordination of movements are slightly violated. Moderate depth of sedation is a condition in which a person reacts to words, tactile stimulation. Deep medication sleep is characterized by a lack of patient contact with the doctor. Awakening is possible with a rather painful stimulation. In some cases, there may be problems with breathing, although hemodynamics remains stable.
What drugs are used for sedation
The ideal drug for medical sleep should have a certain set of qualities. First of all, speed. Also, such a substance must have a minimum of side effects, and the consciousness is quickly restored after the cessation of its administration. Easy sedation is carried out with the help of "Midazolam." Deeper sleep occurs after the introduction of "Propofol". Sedation is also carried out with a substance such as nitrous oxide. This is gas, which is fed through a special mask. Under his influence, all muscles relax, the patient calms down. In some cases, barbiturates are used, but they do not affect the cardiac muscle badly. Continuous monitoring of hemodynamics is necessary. In this regard, their use is limited. A solution of sodium oxybutyrate is often recommended for use in the delivery process.
Application in dentistry
One of the areas where medical sleep is widely used is dentistry. Unlike general anesthesia, which is necessary in certain situations, this type of anesthesia is safer and has several advantages. It is recommended in the presence of allergic reactions to local anesthesia, complicated surgical intervention (with abscess, damage to the jaw, periostitis, etc.). Many people have a panic fear of visiting a dentist. Medical sleep is the only way to conduct all necessary manipulations in the oral cavity painlessly and malotraumatically. Also, this method of anesthesia is simply necessary for patients with epilepsy, schizophrenia and other disorders of the nervous system. It is very important that all teeth can be cured for one visit to a specialist. Also, such anesthesia allows the doctor to work quietly (after all, the patient is asleep). The method is so safe and easy that you can even recommend a drug-induced sleep to a child. This is especially true if the toddler is hyperactive or is simply afraid of doctors and their instruments.
Use of medical sleep during childbirth
It is worth noting that such anesthesia is not prescribed only by one desire of the woman in childbirth. The obstetrician assesses the situation as a whole and in case of prolonged labor can recommend the use of medical sleep. This measure is necessary if a woman experiences very severe pain, which deprives her of her strength. After all, if the pain is exhausting the woman in childbirth, the very process of the child's release can be violated. In this case, the baby will suffer. For a temporary recovery, the patient is immersed in a light sleep. Preparations that are administered also have an anesthetic effect. It is worth noting that the pain does not go away completely. It only slightly dulls, the bouts continue. This manipulation is carried out in two stages. During the first, the body is prepared for the introduction of anesthesia (premedication). The means, dulling pain, relaxing are used. However, they can penetrate into the placenta. As a consequence, a prolonged sleep of the newborn can be observed. The second stage is the introduction of directly medications for medical sleep. During delivery, sodium oxybutyrate (its 20% solution) is often used. Such a substance is safe, low toxicity, does not cause breathing problems in the child. Many women in labor give birth to a relief of the course of labor with the use of such anesthesia.
Anesthesia in intensive care
In severe craniocerebral trauma and other similar conditions, medicinal sleep in intensive care can also be used. However, in this case it lasts for several days (1-3 or more). Undoubted his plus in this application - a decrease in high intracranial pressure, the brain while resting. During sedation, specialists develop further treatment tactics. Also, this method is sometimes used if the patient's condition is severe, and experts do not know how to treat it. However, like any anesthesia, this method has its drawbacks and contraindications. Reviews say that prolonged use of such drugs can have negative consequences for the central nervous system.
Possible consequences of anesthesia
The introduction of any medications into the body can cause allergic reactions. Although drug-induced sleep reviews have positive, yet sometimes you can see dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Contraindications to the use of this type of anesthesia can become chronic diseases, especially during their exacerbation. It is worth noting that often in a state of sleep and carry out such procedures as gastroscopy, colonoscopy. Many doctors recommend taking a general blood test, performing a cardiogram and a fluorography before carrying out the manipulations. Thus, they insure themselves against all possible risks, make sure that during the procedure there will be no problems with breathing, heart. If a medical dream was used, after the operation and other manipulations, the patient easily regains consciousness. And in order to minimize all the negative consequences, it is first necessary to inform the doctor about a possible allergy, presumptive pregnancy, taking medications.