A small fluctuation in the level of blood oxygen saturation may occur in each person. For a more accurate analysis of changes in this indicator, it would be right to take several measurements. Further in the article we will find out why oscillations arise, how they are fixed and why it is necessary to control them.
Decrease O level2 in the blood: causes
Blood oxygenation occurs in the lungs. Then oh2 is spread to the organs with the participation of hemoglobin. This compound is a special carrier protein. It is contained in red blood cells - red blood cells. By the level of oxygen saturation, it is possible to determine the amount of hemoglobin that is present in the body in the state associated with oxygen. Ideally, the saturation level should be between 96-99%. With this indicator, almost all hemoglobin is associated with oxygen. The cause of its decline can be severe forms of diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. With anemia, hemoglobin levels are significantly reduced. In the case of exacerbation of chronic heart and lung diseases, a decrease in oxygen in the blood is also observed, therefore it is recommended to immediately consult a doctor.
Colds, flu, ARVI, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis affect this indicator and report a severe form of the disease. In the course of the survey, it is necessary to take into account some extraneous factors affecting the decrease in oxygen saturation in the blood and changing indicators. These are the movement of the hands or the trembling of the fingers, a manicure with the presence of a varnish of dark tones, a direct hit of light. Among the factors should also be noted the low temperature of the room and nearby objects with electromagnetic radiation, including a mobile phone. All this leads to errors in measurements in the diagnosis.
What is saturation?
Under this term understand the state of saturation of liquids with gases. Medicine saturation indicates the percentage of oxygen in the blood. This indicator is one of the most important and ensures the normal functioning of the body. The blood carries oxygen, necessary for proper functioning, to all organs. How to determine which blood saturation? What will it give?
Blood oxygen saturation is determined by a method called pulse oximetry. The device that is used for this is called a pulse oximeter. For the first time this technique was applied in medical institutions in intensive care wards. Pulse oximeter has become a widely available tool for diagnosing human health. It began to apply even at home. The device is easy to use, so it is used to measure some vital indicators, including pulse and saturation. What is this device and how does it function?
The principle of operation of the equipment
The circulation of a significant amount of oxygen in the body occurs in a state associated with hemoglobin. The rest of it is freely carried by blood, which is able to absorb light and any other substances. What is the principle of the pulse oximeter? For the analysis it is necessary to make blood sampling. As you know, many people do not tolerate this unpleasant procedure. This is especially true of children. It is quite difficult for them to explain why the saturation is determined, what it is and what is the need for it. But, fortunately, pulsoxometry eliminates such troubles. The study is carried out completely painlessly, quickly and completely “bloodless”. The external sensor, which is connected to the instrument, leans against the ear, fingertip, or other peripheral organs. The result is processed by the processor and the display shows whether oxygen saturation is normal or not.
However, there are a couple of nuances. In humans, there are two types of hemoglobin: restored and oxyhemoglobin. The latter oxygenates the tissue. The purpose of the pulse oximeter is to distinguish these types of oxygen. In the peripheral sensor there are two LEDs. From one emit red light rays having a wavelength of 660 Nm, from the other - infrared, whose wavelength is 910 Nm and above. It is because of the absorption of these oscillations that it becomes possible to determine the level of oxyhemoglobin. The peripheral sensor is provided with a photodetector, which receives light rays. They pass through the tissue and send a signal to the procedural unit. Further, the measurement result is reproduced on the display, and here you can determine if oxygen saturation is normal or there are deviations. The second nuance is the absorption of light from arterial blood only. This is due to its ability to alter its density, while simultaneously carrying out changes in blood pressure. As a result, the arterial luminous flux fluctuates significantly. A pulse oximeter distinguishes light that has passed through an artery.