In Russia, the rights of disabled people are set out in the law "On the Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities" under the number 181-FZ of 1995. This document states that the state takes measures to ensure the implementation of the legislative rights of disabled persons without discrimination.
The state as a legislator was not limited to the measures of the existing document and provided additional guarantees to the disabled, in particular, an individual rehabilitation program was added. The corresponding law comes into force from the new 2016 year.
The procedure for recognizing a disability has been changed
According to Rosstat's research, about 13 million people are recognized as disabled in Russia, of whom about 605,000 are disabled. The new law divides the concept of child disability into two categories:
- limited life activity;
- degree of disorder of human functions.
Persons falling under the first category lose some or all of the ability to move independently in space, do not orient themselves, do not look after themselves, do not move independently, are deprived of the opportunity to control their own behavior, are not allowed to work and study in primary and further educational institutions. An individual program for the rehabilitation of a disabled child in the new legislation does not provide for the application of this criterion, the concept remains only for establishing the status of a disabled person and drawing up a list of recovery measures.
To date, the disabled group is defined by the degree of limitation of vital functions, due to persistent disabilities of the body. Since 2016, the group is assigned depending on the degree of violation of precisely the work of certain bodies. The concept of a violation of the functionality of the body carries a subjective assessment, the general diagnosis does not reveal what kind of assistance a disabled person needs. The individual program of social rehabilitation of disabled people allows an objective assessment of the degree of disorder of each individual body, and also specifies an individual recovery program in this situation.
An individual rehabilitation program for a disabled person assists the patient in choosing an approach to solving the problem. One child with cerebral palsy is required to organize a workplace or create conditions for special occupations, some require an assistant, others organize assistance in attending a sports hall.
The new position of the disabled person's
The concept of habilitation includes a system of rehabilitation for the disabled with opportunities for social, business, social activities. Unlike the law of rehabilitation existing in the previous interpretation, the new provision includes a more complete and qualitative formation of social skills, compensation of functions of limited ability to live in order to achieve adaptation in society. Individual program for the rehabilitation and rehabilitation of the disabled includes opportunities for restoring partial or complete material independence and gradual entry into the social sphere of society.
The expanded concept of habilitation includes the same areas as rehabilitation measures: prosthetics, treatment in sanatoria and resorts, surgical intervention and other recreational activities. Previously it was believed that a disabled person is a person who has lost vital functions, but today there are many people, for example, children with cerebral palsy who have never had a certain ability. Therefore, the concept of habilitation, unlike rehabilitation, includes not only the restoration of the impaired function, but also the education of the disabled person for what he could never do.
Individual rehabilitation and rehabilitation program
After the appearance of the program of habilitation within the framework of the legislation, it becomes obvious that an individual path of development for each disabled person is created. Unlike general rehabilitation programs, habilitation takes into account a specific problem of the individual that prevents him from fully functioning in society. The rules for choosing an individual recovery remain the same as they were before, therefore, people with disabilities are provided with a social medical examination bureau, as before.
To fully adapt to the disabled person or his representative, after the development of individual measures, complete information is provided for reading and familiarization. The Bureau must send extracts from the program to state institutions that provide services to a particular disabled person, according to these documents, the executives report to the state services. Socio-medical bureaux exchange information with employment services to help ensure that people with disabilities are able to work. The development of individual rehabilitation programs includes psychological and pedagogical adjustment and adaptation in society.
Creation of a single state register of disabled people
Experts in this field have long talked about the need to create a common system for registering disabled people. The Federal Register was put into operation in 2015. The system contains information about every disabled member of society, namely his group of disability, the reasons for the limitation of vital functions, disruption of the body, the degree of loss of professional skills. Effective measures and recommendations for the elimination of disability are indicated, the amount of monetary compensation and payments is given, other measures of the citizen's social protection are given.
Information in the register comes from the Federal Social Service, state and district executive bodies, from state social and medical bureaus. While the state has not established which services have access to the registry data and the procedure for its use has not been determined. The individual rehabilitation and rehabilitation program for the disabled person assumes that the registry operator provides free access to the list data on an open website. The operator checks every month and updates information about the credentials of each disabled person. The discussion on the duties of the registry operator continues.
The main function of the register is to carefully take into account the individual needs of disabled people, starting from a young age, the ability to provide data for the optimal way of getting education and work. In addition, there is a redistribution of aid in the form of payment of targeted funds and financial support for those who do not receive it systematically.
Definition of the individual rehabilitation worker
The sample of the individual rehabilitation program contains information about the provider of the service, which is determined for each rehabilitation activity and is prescribed in the appropriate box. The conditions of the previous methods of work provided that the performer appointed a social bureau. New ways of conducting rehabilitation allow you to choose the performer depending on the quality of the measures provided. By form of ownership, the organization is chosen private or public.
The social-medical bureau specifies only a part of executors who are defined at technical maintenance, for example, fund of social insurance. After the implementation of the proposed rehabilitation measures, a mark is made in the individual rehabilitation card. Services of state organizations are provided free of charge. If the participation of special institutions is required to restore the vital activity of a disabled person, for example, a closed type school, a request is sent.
Sometimes such institutions respond with a refusal, because they are unable to fulfill the proposed program. In this case, a written refusal is required. After that, the disabled person or his representative has the right to choose another organization capable of performing rehabilitation in full. The implementation of an individual rehabilitation program means that the refusal of a disabled person from a provider offered by a social service for a particular type of assistance does not mean giving up a mandatory item.
The main criterion for choosing an assistance provider within the framework of an individual approach is the full provision of restoration of the function with his participation. Proceeding from such position, the executor becomes establishment or the organization of the state or private pattern of ownership. Medical and social experts agree with the arguments of a disabled person or his entourage regarding the appointment of an executor is far from always. Regardless of their opinion, the disabled person has the full right to undergo rehabilitation in the order and with the assistant who will most fully cope with the tasks.
Development and implementation of the individual recovery plan for disabled children
An individual program for the rehabilitation of the child provides for the existence of standard records containing comprehensive recommendations in the psychological and pedagogical fields. The events in the sphere of medical, social and professional help are prescribed.
Special graphs are allotted for putting the execution deadline in all sections of the program during which the recommended action is being executed, in front of the recommended action, the selected executor is put in the form of an organization or institution. After the implementation of the item, a mark is made about the performance or non-performance of the event by the recommended performer and, regardless of the form of government, the signature of the manager is stamped, stamped in the column about the mark.
The document is signed by the head of the federal department of medical and social expertise, the executive body of the Social Insurance Fund or the territorial body of social protection who recommended the performer, the signature is certified with a seal. A disabled child or his guardian puts his signature on the document after careful study, what determines the responsibility for the implementation of all points of the program.
Criteria for choosing institutions for rehabilitation and control over the implementation of a set of measures
An individual rehabilitation program for a disabled person, taking into account the choice of the performer, is performed taking into account the remoteness of the rehabilitation organizations from the place of residence of the disabled person. Guarantees are given for the implementation of quality services for rehabilitation services, taking into account the systematic approach to the implementation of measures, the provision of several measures in a complex.
Monitoring the implementation of the program
To monitor how individual programs for the rehabilitation of minors are conducted, a special worker is appointed to restore each disabled person. It performs the following actions:
- accepts the invalid;
- supervises the course of the implementation of rehabilitation measures by specialists of the appropriate level;
- after the implementation of the rehabilitation program, organizes a meeting to discuss the effectiveness of the implemented activities and participates in the discussion of the adjustment of services.
Social state bodies act as a manager when an individual rehabilitation program is being implemented, these same organizations are executing measures to restore the social and physical qualities of the patient. To control the situation, a social medical examination bureau is involved, which approves a set of activities and services at the place of residence of the disabled person.
Rehabilitation of the family in a socially disadvantaged situation
An individual family rehabilitation program is made up by employees of social services, if parents, drowning in an antisocial position, cease to properly perform parental responsibilities for raising the younger generation, in fact leaving the children to their fate. Socially dangerous families do not leave anyone indifferent, here moral traditions are lost, family relationship is changing, family society is destroyed.
To determine the family as a socially dangerous there are a number of prerequisites. This includes the reluctance of parents to work and earn a living, passion for alcohol and drugs. The degradation of the family comes with such a way of life very soon, forced inactivity dooms children to beggarly existence. Adolescents gradually leave for the open spaces, thereby contributing to the replenishment of antisocial groups of young people.
Direction of activity of social services
An individual program for the rehabilitation of families is made up of a decision of the social service after a survey of the home and household at the place of residence of the family. Definition and diagnosis of family relations are carried out, the way of life is studied in accordance with events from the past. Work is under way to study the identity of parents and relatives living together. After receiving the information, the family problems are analyzed, the attitude towards the upbringing of children, the position of the child in the family circle is clarified, the goals and aspirations of the members of the related collective are studied.
Criteria for placing the family in an unfavorable status
These are the following features:
- cruel treatment of a toddler, child, minor;
- constant evasion of the content, upbringing, education of the child;
- behavior, adversely affecting the psyche of the baby (drinking, drugs, quarrels, obscene language, humiliation);
- attempt to involve a minor in the commission of a crime or illegal actions.
Organization of work on rendering social assistance
Individual programs for the social rehabilitation of disadvantaged families are based on:
- psychological support and rehabilitation;
- support and psychological help in various crisis and stress situations;
- carrying out of consultative actions with teachers, physicians, psychologists;
- creation of a kind and healthy climate in the family through the promotion of a healthy lifestyle;
- education of parents with a lecture method for mastering pedagogical knowledge, conducting theoretical and practical classes on revealing the complexities of family education and labor training for the child;
- assistance in finding a job and finding a job;
- the implementation of payments as the provision of material assistance.
The result of the rehabilitation program
When the individual rehabilitation program is completed, specialists move on to organizational and methodological activities and collect a consultation to determine the results of rehabilitation rehabilitation activities. The main tasks of the meeting are to consider the consequences of the rehabilitation of the vital functions of a disabled person and his position in society. Doctors sum up the results of measures for corrective-developing programs, social rehabilitation, medical and recreational activities. A conclusion is being prepared on how the program of social rehabilitation of disabled people is functioning on the state of the patient's moral and physical health.
By introducing an individual approach to rehabilitation, the state pays attention to the unhindered access of unprotected disabled persons to all structures of public use, namely the transport system, engineering facilities, information technologies, communication services.