Many forms of cancer today are incurable, for example, glioblastoma of the brain. How to die with such a terrible diagnosis is better not to know anyone, but that's why many are interested in how this disease can be combated and what needs to be done first.
What is glioblastoma?
The most malignant and aggressive tumor that can develop inside the skull is glioblastoma of the brain. The photo below shows that the disease and the applied methods of treatment change the appearance of a person almost beyond recognition.
According to statistics, the disease most often affects men 35-55 years old, but women, of course, also are not insured, a notorious example is the illness of the famous Russian singer Zhanna Friske.
There is a glioblastoma as a result of the unregulated multiplication of stellate glial cells-astrocytes. Between infected and healthy cells there is no clear boundary, which makes this type of tumor the most dangerous and difficult to work.
The tumor rapidly sprouts into the brain tissue, while glioblastoma of the brain develops almost unnoticeably and asymptomatically. How healthy cells die, quickly becoming involved in the process of genetic change and becoming atypical, the doctor can consider on the images of the MRI device.
The causes of glioblastoma
The cause of malignant degeneration of brain cells can not always be established, but several factors that contribute to this process are highlighted:
- Genetic predisposition. If someone from close relatives has cancer, the risk of developing the disease increases.
- The impact of an aggressive environment - radiation, chemicals, ionizing and electromagnetic radiation.
- Genetic changes are acquired and congenital.
- Men and children are at risk.
Symptoms of glioblastoma development
The development of the disease is almost asymptomatic, often the tumor is completely randomly determined when passing the survey on a completely different profile.
To date, science knows the causes and mechanisms of the formation of such a disease as glioblastoma of the brain. How do patients die and why does this question have no answer so far. However, there are several signs, in the manifestation of which you should consult a doctor:
- drowsiness and dizziness;
- persistent headaches;
- violation of fine motor skills;
- impaired vision, hallucinations;
- numbness in the limbs;
- gradual speech impairment;
- difficulty in concentrating;
- sharp and frequent mood swings;
- loss of appetite, and, as a result, a strong weight loss.
Classification of glioblastoma
The World Health Organization has identified three types of this disease. Differences consist in the degree of malignancy, the size of the tumor and a number of other criteria.
- Giant cell glioblastoma-within the neoplasm a large number of cells containing several nuclei are detected.
- Gliosarcoma is characterized by the mixing of glial cells and connective tissue cells with the presence of sarcomatous components.
- Multiform glioma is the most common and most aggressive form of cancer. Characterized by spontaneous and rapid development, it can reach gigantic proportions before the first symptoms manifest themselves.
Degrees of development of the disease
Like any cancer, it is divided according to the degree of malignancy and glioblastoma. The degrees allocated by WHO are as follows:
- The first degree is the easiest form of the disease, with no signs of malignancy. The tumor develops slowly, healthy cells are not affected quickly. Prenoses of doctors are the best, the chances of recovery are great.
- The second degree-cells have atypical signs, but the tumor develops slowly, the formation is least malignant. If the tumor is not detected in time, the disease passes into a more severe stage, this is the main danger. However, no matter how dangerous was glioblastoma of the brain, the forecast of doctors in the second stage is the most optimistic.
- The third degree passes without necrotic processes, but is malignant and grows rapidly, invading the healthy tissues of the brain. The operation performed does not guarantee the desired success.
- The fourth degree-is characterized by a high rate of growth and is the most complex form of cancer. The boundaries of the tumor are difficult to identify, so surgical removal is almost impossible. Often doctors refuse surgery, for fear of causing even greater harm to the patient.
MRI and CT are the most informative methods to diagnose a disease such as glioblastoma of the brain. The photos obtained after the procedure allow to establish the size of the tumor and the location of its localization.
Sometimes a special contrast substance is introduced to the patient, allowing to see in the pictures the entire vascular system and the degree of its damage.
To obtain the most complete picture of the disease, a biopsy-histological study of a fragment of the brain is done. Biopsy is a rather complicated neurosurgical operation, performed under general anesthesia. If the tumor is located deep in the brain tissues, a biopsy is not possible.
Time of diagnosis of glyblastoma, the life of the patient significantly prolongs.
After collecting all the tests and accurate diagnosis, the doctor prescribes treatment to each patient individually. Be sure to take into account such factors as the age of the patient, the general state of health, as well as the stage of development of the process, the location and size of the tumor.
Conditionally treatment can be divided into the following stages:
- Surgical intervention is the most effective and radical method of treatment. Infected cells are completely removed, sometimes healthy areas are captured to prevent the development of the tumor.In order to better vulcanize the tumor, the patient is given a contrast agent before the operation, which, under certain lighting, gives the neoplasm clearer contours.
- Chemotherapy is a medical treatment and is performed after surgery. It serves to prevent relapse.
- Radiation therapy-is used in conjunction with chemotherapy. Ionizing radiation locally affects cancer cells and destroys them.
- Photodynamic therapy, a new and effective method for treating glioblastoma, is based on laser irradiation.
- Radiosurgery-a beam of radiation concentrates directly in the lesion, with damage to healthy tissue minimal.
In a complex, all these types of treatment help to achieve complete elimination of such a complex disease as glioblastoma, the lifetimes of terminally ill patients are also significantly extended. Treatment takes an extended period of time and requires strict compliance with all medical recommendations, including strict diet.
Unfortunately, with such a serious illness as glioblastoma of the brain, the prognosis of life can sometimes be disappointing. Life expectancy after removal of the tumor is two to three years. With multiform glioblastome, death occurs in 30-40 weeks.
A number of complicated neurological defects cause a severe degree of damage, which is provided by glioblastoma of the brain. How do patients die? Basically, this is a serious death, accompanied by painful headaches and mental disorders, and self-service ability is also lost. In this case, medicine can only provide palliative care.
About 80% of cases after the treatment, relapses occur.
Nevertheless, for a substantial extension of the projected timeframe, the patient's own desire is primarily required. Timely diagnosed, coupled with the strength of man's will, perseverance and the desire to fight increase the chances of the effectiveness of ongoing treatment, give hope for a normal and full life.