Many forms of cancer today are incurable, for example, glioblastoma of the brain. How to die with such a terrible diagnosis is better not to know anyone, but that is why many are interested in how to deal with this disease and what needs to be done first.
What is glioblastoma?
The most malignant and aggressive tumor that can develop inside the skull is glioblastoma of the brain. The photo below shows that the disease and the methods of treatment used change the appearance of a person almost beyond recognition.
According to statistics, the disease most often affects men 35-55 years old, but women, of course, are also not insured, a disease of the famous Russian singer Zhanna Friske can serve as a notorious example.
Glioblastoma occurs as a result of unnormalized multiplication of stellate glial cells — astrocides. There is no clear boundary between the affected and healthy cells, which makes this type of tumor the most dangerous and inoperable.
The tumor rapidly grows into the brain tissue, while almost unnoticed and asymptomatic, the patient develops glioblastoma of the brain. As healthy cells die, quickly becoming involved in the process of genetic change and becoming atypical, the doctor can look at the pictures of the MRI apparatus.
Causes of glioblastoma
The cause of the malignant degeneration of brain cells can not always be established, but several factors that contribute to this process are highlighted:
- Genetic predisposition. If any of the close relatives suffered from cancer, the risk of developing the disease increases.
- Exposure to aggressive environments — radiation, chemicals, ionizing and electromagnetic radiation.
- Genetic changes — acquired and congenital.
- In the risk zone of the face of a male and children.
Symptoms of glioblastoma development
The development of the disease is almost asymptomatic, often a tumor is completely randomly determined during the examination on a completely different profile.
To date, science is not aware of the causes and mechanisms of the formation of a disease such as glioblastoma of the brain. How the sick die and why — there is no answer to this question yet. However, there are several signs, the manifestation of which should consult a doctor:
- drowsiness and dizziness;
- persistent headache;
- violation of fine motor skills;
- blurred vision, hallucinations;
- numbness in the limbs;
- gradual impairment of speech;
- difficulty concentrating;
- sharp and frequent mood swings;
- loss of appetite, and, as a result, severe weight loss.
Classification of glioblastoma
The World Health Organization has identified three types of this disease. The differences are in the degree of malignancy, the size of the tumor and a number of other criteria.
- Giant cell glioblastoma — within the neoplasm, a large number of cells containing several nuclei are found.
- Glyosarcoma — is characterized by a mixture of glial cells and connective tissue cells with the presence of sarcomatous components.
- Glioma multiforme is the most common and most aggressive form of cancer. Characterized by spontaneous and rapid development, can reach gigantic proportions before the first symptoms appear.
Degree of development of the disease
Like any cancer disease, it is divided according to the degree of malignancy and glioblastoma. The degrees allocated to WHO are as follows:
- The first degree is the mildest form of the disease, with no signs of malignancy. The tumor develops slowly, healthy cells are not rapidly affected. The prescriptions of the doctors are the best, the chances for recovery are great.
- The second degree — cells have atypical signs, but the tumor develops slowly, the formation is less malignant. In case of late detection of a tumor, the disease passes into a more severe stage, this is the main danger. However, no matter how dangerous the glioblastoma of the brain is, the prognosis of doctors in the second stage is the most optimistic.
- The third degree — passes without necrotic processes, but is malignant and grows rapidly, invading healthy brain tissue. The operation does not guarantee the desired success.
- The fourth degree is characterized by a high growth rate and is the most complex form of cancer. The borders of the tumor is difficult to identify, so surgical removal is almost impossible. Often, doctors refuse surgery, for fear of causing even more harm to the patient.
MRI and CT are the most informative methods to diagnose a disease such as glioblastoma of the brain. Photos obtained after the procedure, allow you to set the size of the tumor and its location.
Sometimes a special contrast agent is injected into the patient, which makes it possible to see the entire vascular system and the extent of its damage in the pictures.
A biopsy — a histological examination of a fragment of the brain — is done to get the most complete picture of the disease. Biopsy is a rather complicated neurosurgical operation that is performed under general anesthesia. If the tumor is located deep in the brain tissue, a biopsy is made impossible.
Time-diagnosed gliblastoma prolongs the patient's life significantly.
After collecting all the tests and accurate diagnosis, the doctor prescribes treatment for each patient individually. Such factors as the patient's age, general health condition, as well as the stage of development of the process, location and size of the tumor are necessarily taken into account.
Conditionally, the treatment can be divided into the following stages:
- Surgical intervention is the most effective and radical method of treatment. Infected cells are removed completely, healthy areas are sometimes captured to prevent the development of a tumor.With the aim of better voiding the boundaries of the tumor, a contrast agent is injected into the patient before the operation, which, with a certain light, gives the tumor a clearer contours.
- Chemotherapy is a drug treatment and is carried out after surgery. It serves to prevent recurrence.
- Radiation therapy — used in conjunction with chemotherapy. Ionizing radiation locally affects cancer cells and destroys them.
- Photodynamic therapy — a new and effective method for treating glioblastoma, is based on laser irradiation.
- Radiosurgery — a beam of radiation is concentrated directly in the lesion focus, with minimal damage to healthy tissue.
Together, all these types of treatment help to achieve complete deliverance from such a complex disease as glioblastoma, the lifetimes of terminally ill patients are also significantly prolonged. Treatment takes a long period of time and requires strict adherence to all medical recommendations, including strict diet.
Unfortunately, with such a serious illness, like glioblastoma of the brain, the prognosis of life can sometimes be disappointing. Life expectancy after removal of a neoplasm is two to three years. When glioblastoma multiforme death occurs in 30-40 weeks.
A number of complex neurological defects cause severe damage, which is provided by glioblastoma of the brain. How do the sick die? This is mainly a severe death, accompanied by agonizing headaches and mental disorder, and the ability to self-care is also lost. In this case, medicine can only provide palliative care.
In about 80% of cases after treatment, relapses occur.
Nevertheless, for a substantial extension of the forecast periods, first of all, the desire of the patient himself is required. The time of the diagnosis, coupled with the strength of the person, stamina and the desire to fight, increase the chances of the effectiveness of the treatment, give hope for a normal and full life.