Polyiodontia is an anomaly of development, the number of teeth exceeding the norm. Typically, an adult should have 28 teeth plus 4 wisdom teeth. And the absence of the latter is not considered a deviation from the norm. However, in some cases, more teeth are observed in the human oral cavity. This is already, in the opinion of dentists, an anomaly and has a diagnosis. So, let's look at what the disease is, what causes its development? how to treat polyiodontics in humans. Let's start in order.
What it is
The medical term "polyiodontia" is of Greek origin. In the Russian translation, the word "odontos" means "tooth," and the prefix "poly" indicates a superior plural. Thus, it turns out that polyiodontia is an excessive number of teeth. This anomaly has other names - hyperidentity, supradentia, superfine teeth or multi-tooth.
The problem is divided into several types. Differentiation of the disease depends on its symptoms. Of particular importance is the location of supercomplete teeth. Depending on this, polyiodontia in humans is divided into typical (atavistic) and atypical.
Typical (atavistic) polyiodontics inherited from our ancestors. Ancient people possessed a more powerful chewing apparatus, and the number of teeth considerably exceeded the norm indicated by dentists. In some cases, the genes of ancestors are awakening in a modern person, which manifests itself as a multi-tooth. However, for the statement of this diagnosis, it is not necessary that the number of teeth is too large. Polyiodontia in a person is diagnosed, even if one tooth is found in the mouth in excess of the norm.
Atypical polyiodontics in humans has its own characteristics. For this species, the location of extra teeth outside the dentition is characteristic, that is, the teeth erupt outside the alveolar cavities. And in some cases, hyperidentity manifests itself not even in the oral cavity.
Polyiodontia in humans can differ in origin. Then it is divided into true and false.
True polyiodontia in man fully reflects the essence of the problem. Its development is associated with genetic predisposition and teragenic factors. For this state, the formation and subsequent development of extra primordia of molars is absolutely necessary.
False polyiodontia in people is diagnosed if the milk tooth does not fall out, but remains to perform the functions of the indigenous one. In medical practice, there are cases when a milk tooth was found in a person older than 50 years. In addition, false polyiodontia is diagnosed when the adjacent teeth are fused or other deviations in the development of the dentition.
Polyodontics in humans: causes of appearance
This anomaly is considered a congenital malformation. According to statistics, more than a third of cases are associated with a genetic predisposition. The tooth-jaw system begins to form in the embryo in the first-second trimester of pregnancy. Various kinds of malfunctions, leading to developmental disorders, occur under the influence of numerous aggressive factors. They include: bad ecology, viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, admission by the future mother of alcohol, narcotic or prohibited medications.
In principle, to date, scientists can not give an accurate answer to the question of the development of polyiodontics, all studies in this field of medicine are under consideration. To more fully study the problem, scientists will need the introduction of new technologies, a comprehensive study of the anomaly and, of course, time.
What is dangerous polyodontics
Many people are interested in whether polyiodontia is dangerous? When the teeth are too many, this primarily affects the formation of the bite in a negative way. After all, no matter what type of anomaly is diagnosed, with eruption, excess teeth will shift the underlying ones, which are nearby, thereby distorting the dentition. In very rare cases incomplete teeth do not cause deformation in the bite. Due to problems caused by polyiodontia, there are violations in the digestive system and the development of a variety of diseases of the dentition. In addition, a person can suffer frequent headaches and impaired liver function.
According to statistical data, the most frequent is atypical multi-tooth, that is, supercomplex incisors grow outside the dentition. This arrangement has a very negative effect on the aesthetic side, which affects the mental state of the patient. The person becomes irritable and withdrawn.
The next problem that supradentia can cause is the retention of the complex teeth. The fact is that extra incisors often appear in places reserved for complete teeth. Because of this, the latter, when erupted, run into unnecessary ones and begin to grow incorrectly or even stop their eruption, which leads not only to the problem with the bite, but also to the loss of the basic teeth.
Is it possible to cure polyodontia?
Excessive number of teeth, undoubtedly, prevents their owner from living. That's why people treat this problem with dentists. Treatment of polyiodontics, like most deviations in the maxillofacial region, is performed surgically. However, in this way only the anomaly is eliminated, while the consequences caused by it remain. As a consequence, the patient is still prescribed as an additional treatment orthodontic therapy.
Superflex teeth are removed, as a rule, even in childhood, because the dentition in a child is formed when replacing milk teeth with indigenous teeth. If the anomaly is not eliminated, the process of erupting new teeth will go wrong. To remove non-cut excess chisels, they stimulate their growth. For this, a special prosthesis is fixed on the jaw. Thanks to him, the bite at the desired site rises. In addition, assign auxiliary manipulations that will activate the process. These include: vibration and electro stimulation, massage. After installing the prosthesis and performing additional procedures for the undivided tooth is observed, and when the opportunity arises, they are removed. Unfortunately, this method of therapy is not always possible. The physician determines the expediency of such treatment from the pictures.
Typically, if you remove an extra tooth does not work, this procedure is refused in favor of surgery. For the operation to be most successful, the patient is asked to undergo a CT scan, an X-ray or an orthopantogram. On the basis of the studies made, the best approach to eliminating the problem is chosen. Depending on the time allotted for the operation, the condition of the roots, the age of the patient and the number of excess teeth, the type of anesthesia used, local or general, is determined. After eliminating the anomalies proceed to orthodontic treatment, which allows you to correct the bite. It can appoint only the attending physician, since the methods of this therapy are strictly individual.
If the supercomplete tooth was not seen in childhood, then in adulthood it may not be removed. Of course, this option is only suitable if the hyperidentity is not a hindrance. However, the removed tooth is removed at any age, as it can cause significant bite and deformities of the teeth.
A person diagnosed with a disease such as polyiodontia should understand that the problem does not resolve itself. Treatment of pathology is mandatory. For this, the patient must visit an experienced dentist, orthodontist or surgeon, undergo the necessary examination and proceed as soon as possible to treatment.