Everyone can have allergies differently, but more often it is expressed in the appearance of a cold. Various stimuli can become a cause, in any case this phenomenon causes a lot of inconvenience. But there are questions: if you have an allergic rhinitis, what is the treatment for this disease, what will be effective and what can be done to minimize the likelihood of a relapse?
What is allergic rhinitis
An allergic rhinitis (rhinitis) can be accompanied by a rhinorrhea (discharge from the nose). Its occurrence is characterized by difficulty breathing, swelling of the nasal passages, there is itching or burning, lays the nose, sneezing begins. It is possible that these symptoms can be accompanied by inflammation of the eye mucosa (conjunctivitis). But in each specific case a person can notice additional individual manifestations. Also in a certain month of the year there may be a constant runny nose. The reasons for such manifestations are different.
Why there is an allergic rhinitis
An allergic rhinitis develops against a background of hypersensitivity to one or another allergen. It manifests itself immediately or 20 minutes after contact with the stimulus. For a person such an allergen can become pollen of plants, dust accumulated on the shelves of libraries or at home, some medicines, certain foods. In addition, allergies to cats, insects, fungi (mold or yeast) may develop. But some people face this problem because of genetic predisposition.
But how to distinguish an allergic rhinitis from an ordinary cold? Below are some of the signs:
- Itching in the nose.
- Colorless watery discharge. If the irritant gets into the system, prolonged sneezing can begin.
- Nasal congestion, which becomes more noticeable in the night.
- Often, this rhinitis is accompanied by conjunctivitis, itching in the eye area and even facial swelling. Also, the appearance of a cough is not excluded, and this, in turn, can lead to bronchial asthma.
- An otolaryngologist's examination shows a pale and friable nasal membrane, with watery discharge. Pharyngitis can develop.
- Being in the room, a person feels a constant runny nose. The reasons for this are different, but usually allergies cause chemical smells, tobacco smoke, perfumes, powders and other household chemicals, industrial flavors or new furniture.
Consequences of an allergic rhinitis
If a person has developed an allergy, her symptoms will constantly appear after a short time after contact with the stimulus (for each he is individual). If it is hay fever, then the symptoms will be present for a long time, as long as trees, shrubs or weeds bloom. From frequent carding, such people even have a transverse fold on the nose. In addition, the constant nasal congestion leads to the fact that a person begins to breathe only through the mouth. This circumstance usually leads to stagnant processes and the formation of polyps, the development of sinusitis or otitis. Swelling of the mucous membrane can lead to blockage of the paranasal sinuses. In addition, often the sense of smell disappears and, as a result, a sense of taste. If rhinitis is seasonal, complications are usually not observed.
In some cases, improper nutrition can aggravate the patient's condition. Sometimes the most effective allergy remedy is to remove certain foods from the diet. For example, if a person has a reaction to pollen, it is important to determine at what period it is manifested. In the spring months, poplar, hazel, birch and other trees usually bloom. If it is during this period there is an allergy, it is better to exclude from the diet potatoes, parsley, honey, pears and apples. This is necessary to avoid cross-reaction. If the irritation begins in August and September, when ragweed and quinoa blossom, it is advisable to abandon mayonnaise, cabbage, watermelons and honey. But this is not the whole list of products, since there is much that can cause a cross allergy. Be sure to consult an allergist.
Determine the nature of the disease
Before deciding what to treat an allergic rhinitis, it is important to determine the source of the problem. Having found out the reason, it is possible to cope with illness. But to determine the source of allergies, it is important to appear to an allergist who will prescribe the passage of tests. It can be blood donation or skin tests. Having learned the source of irritation, it is necessary to minimize your contact with him. If it turned out that this is a reaction to flowering, then during this period it is better to go on vacation, if it is food, then they must be excluded, and so on.
Allergic rhinitis: how to treat this disease
With seasonal rhinitis, it is necessary to do a nose wash. In pharmacies is sold an inexpensive device called "Dolphin", which is convenient to carry out this procedure. It consists of a vial, a tube and a lid. With its help, you can regulate the supply of fluid and reduce discomfort to a minimum. The medicine for allergic rhinitis, which will be flushed, can be done by yourself. For this, 1/4 teaspoon of soda and salt is dropped into the glass of water, a few drops of iodine are added. The tool is placed in the device. If desired, you can buy a pharmacy solution in bags. In addition, the spray from the allergic rhinitis based on sea water works perfectly. It can be Aqua Maris, Akvalor, Marimer, Allergol.
As mentioned before, before treating an allergic rhinitis, it is important to find out its nature. If you do not know what causes irritation, treatment becomes useless, and at times can damage your health.
Having identified the nature of the disease, you can proceed to the following stages:
- Getting rid of inflammation that appeared on the mucous membranes of the nose.
- Allergy-specific therapy.
Most often in order to get rid of inflammation, an integrated approach is used, in which several drugs are involved. So, than to treat an allergic rhinitis, what drugs are prescribed by doctors?
Usually, these are antihistamines given in the form of tablets or drops. Today, doctors advise to use second-generation drugs, such as "Tsetrin", "Zodak", "Kestin", "Claritin", and the third generation - "Erius", "Zirtek", "Telfast". Depending on the patient's age, dosage is adjusted. Usually the course of treatment should last two to three weeks. But if you contact a doctor, he appoints the number of days at his discretion (given the condition of the patient). It is worth noting that it is forbidden to prescribe such medicines for oneself. Before treating an allergic rhinitis without consulting a doctor, it is worth considering that these drugs always have side effects and very often they have a cardiotoxic effect, having a negative impact on the heart. Medicines of the last generation are considered less dangerous to health, but their cost remains high.
Sprays and drops from rhinitis
If these drugs could not bring relief, the next step will be a nasal spray from an allergic rhinitis and sprays that act directly on the nasal mucosa. With a mild form of symptoms, Cromoglyn, Cromosol, and Cromogexal, that is, derivatives of sodium cromoglycate, are usually prescribed. These funds are found in the form of sprays. They need to be used all the time while the exacerbation lasts, thrice a day, doing one or two injections. The result can be noticed only after the fifth day, and sometimes even later. Usually, without these drugs, the treatment of an allergic rhinitis in children is not enough. As these funds relate more to preventive, the course can last up to four months. But doctors are not forbidden to use such sprays all year round.
Also, the tool "Nazaval" became popular. It is based on plant cellulose. This spray from an allergic rhinitis is applied up to six times a day. After injecting its contents into the nose on the mucous membrane is formed, which serves as a barrier, not allowing the irritant to affect the sensitive areas. If the disease is acute, this remedy will be ineffective.
With severe allergic rhinitis, you can use such sprays as "Nazonex", "Aldetsin", "Nazarel", "Benarin", "Nasobek", "Fliksonase." The doctor will help determine the duration of the course of such treatment.
Error in treatment with drops
Often, using drops in the nose from an allergic rhinitis, a person commits a mistake - he uses vasoconstrictive drugs for a long time. Usually these drugs ("Naphtizin", "Vibrocil", etc.) help to make breathing nose easier. But, using them for a long time, the patient increases the likelihood of developing medical rhinitis. Sometimes, depending on the severity, you may need surgery to get rid of the acquired disease. At an allergic rhinitis it is desirable to not use these drops. You can make an exception only with a strong nasal congestion, but then you need to switch to intranasal glucocorticoids.
Some people may not benefit from any remedy for an allergic rhinitis, while others may have contraindications to such drugs. In these cases, you can resort to a completely radical way of fighting - allergen-specific therapy. But such treatment should be dealt with only by an experienced doctor and only in a hospital. The principle is to guide the patient a certain dose of an allergen. Gradually the dose should increase. All this is necessary in order for the body to develop resistance to irritation. If the treatment was successful, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis completely recede. A similar method has already been tried by thousands of people and were pleased with the result, as they were able to get rid of their tormented symptoms.
You can also use a homeopathic remedy for an allergic rhinitis called "Rinosnenai" in the treatment.
As you know, traditional medicine helps in the fight against many diseases, but, unfortunately, it can not cure allergic rhinitis. Often, treatment with doses, infusions and decoctions can worsen a person's condition, since an allergy can exacerbate such an effect. Do not listen to the advice of neighbors and friends who are allegedly cured by folk methods from an allergic rhinitis. There is only one safe "home" method of relief - washing the nasal passages with saline. But it is worth considering that this measure is not a cure, so it is better not to delay, but rather to buy drops from an allergic rhinitis in the pharmacy on the recommendation of a doctor. This is necessary, since simply using a saline solution is not capable of producing a tangible, persistent therapeutic effect.
Allergic rhinitis during child bearing
When allergic rhinitis begins to develop during pregnancy, women and doctors sound alarm, because many methods of treatment, including folk, can not be used. The disease itself does not have any effect on the fetus. But with improperly chosen methods of treatment, and also if the condition has developed into a heavier form, the threat to the baby is increasing. To identify the cause of the allergy, a woman needs to take a blood test. You can not take a sample from the skin at this time.
Methods of treatment during the bearing of the baby
Firstly, it is worth remembering that it is forbidden to treat allergic rhinitis during pregnancy with antihistamines because they can harm the fetus. If there is an urgent need for them, it is better to give preference to the means of the third generation. But the dosage is strictly prescribed and regulated by the doctor.
Treatment should be local in nature and affect only the nasal canals. Therefore, the doctor can prescribe a spray or a drop from an allergic rhinitis with a content of sodium cromoglicate. In any case, the basis of such drugs should be plant cellulose. But it is important to note that in the first three months of gestation, it is also not necessary to use nasal corticosteroids.
Lifestyle with allergic rhinitis
The main task in the occurrence of allergic symptoms is to reduce contact with the stimulus to a possible minimum. But it can be identified only after the diagnosis. Then the doctor should give his recommendations.
All allergens are divided into:
- household (home dust, feather pillows);
- food (various products);
- industrial (powders, detergents);
- epidermal (animal hair, feathers of birds);
Once an allergen is detected, it is easier to think about further measures. For example, with food allergy, a person tests, which will show which foods are incompatible with the body. They will have to be removed from the diet.
If a household allergy is detected, it is recommended that wet cleaning is carried out daily. During the cleaning, it is necessary to be in a bandage or mask, which will prevent dust from getting on the mucous membrane. In addition, all bedding must be made only from hypoallergenic materials. It is also desirable not to keep "dust collectors" in your apartment. These include mattresses, mats, fabric and soft toys and stuff. In addition, do not forget that the blinds are much easier to clean than to constantly wash heavy curtains. Furniture should be made of a material that can be wiped with a damp cloth. During the harvest, you need to use acaricides, as they are able to kill mites that live in house dust. It is no longer a secret that these parasites are responsible for 50% of cases of development of household allergies.
If the blame for the irritation of the mucosa is the pollen of trees and flowers, then you will have to give up trips outside the city. You can arrange evening walks around the city (from 22 hours). It is at this time in the air pollen concentration decreases. Also in the first half of the day you should not open your windows. An air cleaner can be installed in the apartment. Many firms tend to make their cosmetics on herbs. People with pollen allergies should refrain from using such substances. Also, in the period when flowering begins, you can take a vacation and try to leave your region. It is better to choose the place of destination for the sea or mountainous terrain. In these areas the concentration of pollen is always minimal.
Unfortunately, modern medicine has not yet developed measures that allow for prevention and reduce the likelihood of allergic rhinitis. If the disease has already overcome a person, all the prevention is reduced to reducing contact with the stimulus, and also a suitable remedy for an allergic rhinitis is selected. This is necessary, since in the absence of proper treatment the disease will begin to progress. In this case, all the symptoms will be amplified.
Allergies and pets
Approximately 15% of the population face difficulties when they develop an allergy to the wool of pets. But the reaction of a person does not arise on the coat itself, but on what is on it. Animals can lick and leave on the fibers their saliva and skin particles. They cause irritation of the mucous membranes. But how? Animal cells are strong enough proteins, when they get into the human body with a weakened immune system, they begin to be perceived as a threat, and a protective reaction is triggered. Side effects of these "touches" are manifested in allergies. These can be watery eyes, skin rashes, rhinitis and asthma attacks. Most often, people are allergic to cats, but other animals can also be sources of such painful symptoms.
How to cope with pet allergies
Often, this reaction to wool can not be prevented. But to minimize the risk of developing this type of allergy is possible. For this, preparation begins from the very childhood. If a child has a tendency to be allergic, do not immediately give a cat or other animal. If the baby continues to contact the pet, his body will be able to develop a protective function, as a result, in the mature years, you can avoid allergies.
Methods of treatment
If the reaction to the wool has already developed, you can use modern methods, which are usually used to treat other types of allergies.
- As in other cases, it is important to use antihistamines. They are necessary in order to neutralize the action of substances that cause symptoms. For example, it can be "Claritin", "Benadryl" - they are sold in pharmacies without a prescription. Also, the doctor can prescribe medications that are only available on prescription (for example, "Allegra").
- Also, decongestants can help here, since allergic to wool can cause mucosal edema. Such drugs do not allow mucus to stagnate. Such means include "Sudafed".
- Also, the doctor can prescribe other drugs that successfully cope with asthma and allergic symptoms. For example, prescription steroids - "Flonase" or "Nazonex" are usually prescribed for treatment.
In addition to treatment, it is necessary to follow simple rules that help reduce the chances of exacerbation or the appearance of symptoms. Recommendations apply to pet owners.
- To bathe a pet and comb it out.
- Regularly organize wet cleaning in rooms.
- The animal should lie and sleep on its litter, and not on the bed or the master's chair.
- After contact with the pet, always wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
- To reduce the loss of hair, try to make the nutrition of your pet balanced.
Choosing the right treatment and taking all the preventive measures, you can probably get along with your favorite pet in one area.