Each person has an allergy may be manifested differently, but most often it is expressed in the appearance of a cold. The reason may be a variety of stimuli, in any case, this phenomenon gives a lot of inconvenience. But there are questions: if you had an allergic rhinitis, how to treat this disease, what means will be effective and what can you do to minimize the chance of a relapse?
What is allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis (rhinitis) may be accompanied by rhinorrhea (nasal discharge). Its occurrence is characterized by difficulty in breathing, the nasal passages swell, itching or burning appears, the nose is laid, sneezing begins. It is possible that these symptoms may be accompanied by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes (conjunctivitis). But in each case, a person may notice additional individual manifestations. Also, in a certain month of the year, there may be a constant runny nose. The reasons for such manifestations vary.
Why does allergic rhinitis occur?
Allergic rhinitis develops on the background of hypersensitivity to one or another allergen. It manifests itself immediately or 20 minutes after contact with an irritant. For a person, such an allergen can be pollen from plants, dust accumulated on the shelves of libraries or at home, some medications, certain foods. In addition, allergies to cats, insects, fungi (mold or yeast) can develop. But some people face this problem due to genetic predisposition.
But how to distinguish allergic rhinitis from the common cold? Below are some signs:
- Itchy nose.
- Colorless watery discharge. If an irritant is injected, bouts of prolonged sneezing may begin.
- Sensation of nasal congestion, which becomes more noticeable at night.
- Often, such rhinitis is accompanied by conjunctivitis, itching in the eyes, and even swelling of the face. Also, the occurrence of cough is not excluded, and this, in turn, can lead to bronchial asthma.
- An examination by an otolaryngologist shows a pale and loose nasal membrane, with watery discharge. Pharyngitis may develop.
- Being in the room, a person feels a constant runny nose. The reasons for this are different, but usually allergies cause chemical odors, tobacco smoke, perfumes, powders and other household chemicals, industrial fragrances or new furniture.
The effects of allergic rhinitis
If a person has an allergy, its symptoms will constantly occur a short time after contact with an irritant (for each individual). If it is pollinosis, then the symptoms will be present for a long time while the trees, shrubs or weeds are blooming. Due to frequent scratching of such people, there is even a transverse crease on the nose. In addition, the constant nasal congestion leads to the fact that a person begins to breathe only through the mouth. This circumstance usually leads to stagnant processes and the formation of polyps, the development of sinusitis or otitis. Swelling of the mucous membrane can lead to blockage of the paranasal sinuses. In addition, smell is often lost and, as a result, the feeling of taste. If rhinitis is seasonal, complications are usually not observed.
In some cases, the wrong diet can aggravate the patient's condition. Sometimes the most effective remedy for allergies is to remove certain foods from the diet. For example, if a person has a reaction to pollen, it is important to determine at what particular period it appears. In the spring months poplar, hazel, birch and other trees usually bloom. If it is during this period, allergies, it is better to exclude from the diet of potatoes, parsley, honey, pears and apples. This is necessary to avoid cross-reaction. If irritation begins in August and September, when ambrosia and quinoa blossom, it is advisable to abandon mayonnaise, cabbage, watermelon, and honey. But this is not the whole list of products, because there is a lot that can cause cross-allergy. Be sure to consult an allergist.
Determine the nature of the disease
Before deciding how to treat an allergic rhinitis, it is important to determine the source of the problem. Finding out the cause, you can cope with the disease. But to determine the source of allergy, it is important to seem to an allergist who will prescribe tests. This may be a blood donation or skin test. Having learned a source of irritation, it is necessary to minimize your contact with it. If it turned out that this is a reaction to flowering, then during this period it is better to go on vacation, if it is food, then they should be excluded, and so on.
Allergic rhinitis: how to treat this disease
With seasonal rhinitis, be sure to do a nasal wash. Pharmacies sell an inexpensive device called Dolphin, which is convenient to carry out this procedure. It consists of a bottle, tube and cap. With it, you can adjust the flow of fluid and reduce discomfort to a minimum. The cure for allergic rhinitis, which will be held washing, can be done independently. To do this, drop 1/4 teaspoon of soda and salt into a glass of water, add a few drops of iodine. The tool is placed in the device. If desired, you can buy in a pharmacy solution in bags. In addition, an excellent spray from allergic rhinitis based on sea water. It can be Aqua Maris, Aqualor, Marimer, Allergol.
As already mentioned, before treating an allergic rhinitis, it is important to ascertain its nature. If you do not know what causes irritation, the treatment becomes useless, and sometimes it can be detrimental to health.
Having identified the nature of the disease, you can proceed to the following steps:
- Disposal of inflammations that appeared on the mucous membranes of the nose.
- Allergic-specific therapy.
Most often, in order to get rid of inflammation, an integrated approach is used, in which several drugs are involved. So, how to treat allergic rhinitis, which drugs are prescribed by doctors?
These are usually antihistamines that are available in the form of tablets or drops. Today, doctors advise the use of second-generation drugs, such as “Tsetrin”, “Zodak”, “Kestin”, “Claritin”, and the third generation - this is “Erius”, “Zyrtec”, “Telfast”. Depending on the age of the patient, the dosage is adjusted. Usually the treatment should last two to three weeks. But if you go to the doctor, he assigns the number of days at his discretion (taking into account the condition of the patient). It should be noted that it is forbidden to prescribe such drugs yourself. Before treating allergic rhinitis without consulting a doctor, you should think about the fact that these drugs always have side effects and very often they have a cardiotoxic effect, having a negative effect on the heart. Drugs of the last generation are considered less dangerous to health, but their cost remains high.
Sprays and drops from rhinitis
If these drugs could not bring relief, the next step will be nose drops from an allergic rhinitis and sprays that act directly on the nasal mucosa. In the mild manifestation of symptoms, “Kromoglin”, “Chromosol”, “Cromohexal”, that is, derivatives of sodium cromoglycate, are usually prescribed. These funds are found in the form of sprays. They should be used all the time while the exacerbation lasts, three times a day, making one or two injections. The result can be seen only after the fifth day, and sometimes even later. Usually, treatment of allergic rhinitis in children does not do without these drugs. Since these funds are more prophylactic, the course can last up to four months. But doctors do not prohibit the use of such sprays all year.
It also became popular means "Nazaval." It is based on vegetable pulp. This allergic rhinitis spray is applied up to six times per day. After injecting its contents into the nose, a membrane is formed on the mucous membrane, which serves as an obstacle, preventing the stimulus from affecting sensitive areas. If the disease is acute, this remedy will be ineffective.
In case of severe allergic rhinitis, you can use sprays such as “Nazonex”, “Aldetsin”, “Nazarel”, “Benarin”, “Nasobek”, “Fliksonaze”. The doctor will help determine the duration of the course of such treatment.
Error when treating drops
Often, using drops in the nose from an allergic rhinitis, a person makes a mistake - he uses vasoconstrictor drugs for a long time. Usually these products (Naphthyzin, Vibrocil, etc.) help make nose breathing easier. But, using them for a long time, the patient increases the likelihood of developing medical rhinitis. Sometimes, depending on the severity, surgery may be needed to get rid of the acquired disease. In allergic rhinitis, it is advisable not to use these drops. An exception can be made only with a strong nasal congestion, but then you need to switch to intranasal glucocorticoids.
Some people may not be helped by any medicine for an allergic rhinitis, while others may have contraindications for such drugs. In these cases, you can resort to a completely radical method of struggle - allergen-specific therapy. But such treatment should be done only by an experienced doctor and only in a hospital. The principle is to administer to the patient a specific dose of the allergen. Gradually, the dose should increase. All this is necessary so that the body can develop resistance to the stimulus. If the treatment is successful, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis completely subside. Thousands of people have already tried this method and were satisfied with the result, as they were able to get rid of the symptoms that tormented them.
It is also possible in the treatment to use a homeopathic remedy for allergic rhinitis called “Rinosennai”.
As is known, traditional medicine helps in the fight against many diseases, but, unfortunately, it can not cure allergic rhinitis. Often, treatment with charges, infusions and decoctions can worsen a person's condition, since allergies can worsen from such effects. You should not listen to the advice of neighbors and friends who allegedly recovered from allergic rhinitis by popular methods. There is only one safe “home” method of alleviating the condition - washing the nasal canals with saline. But it is worth considering that this measure is not a treatment, so it is better not to delay, but rather to get drops from the allergic rhinitis at the pharmacy on the recommendation of a doctor. This is necessary because the mere use of saline is not capable of producing a tangible, lasting therapeutic effect.
Allergic rhinitis during childbirth
When allergic rhinitis begins to develop during pregnancy, women and doctors sound the alarm, since many methods of treatment, including folk, cannot be used. The disease itself has no effect on the fetus. But with improperly chosen methods of treatment, as well as if the condition has developed into a more severe form, the threat to the baby increases. To identify the cause of allergies, a woman must pass a blood test. It is impossible to take a sample from the skin at this time.
Methods of treatment during childbirth
First, it is worth remembering that it is prohibited to treat allergic rhinitis during pregnancy with antihistamines, since they can harm the fetus. If there is an urgent need for them, it is better to give preference to the means of the third generation. But the dosage is strictly prescribed and regulated by the doctor.
Treatment should be local in nature and affect only the nasal channels. Therefore, the doctor may prescribe a spray or drops from allergic rhinitis with sodium cromoglycate content. In any case, the basis of such drugs should be plant cellulose. But it is important to note that in the first three months of gestation, nasal corticosteroids should also not be used.
Lifestyle with allergic rhinitis
The main task in the event of allergic symptoms is to reduce contact with the irritant to the minimum possible. But it can only be detected after the diagnosis. Next, the doctor should give their recommendations.
All allergens are divided into:
- household (house dust, feather pillows);
- food (various products);
- industrial (powders, detergents);
- epidermal (animal hair, feathers of birds);
Once an allergen has been identified, it is easier to think about further actions. For example, in case of food allergy, a person passes tests that show exactly which products are incompatible with the body. They will have to be removed from the diet.
If household allergies are detected, it is recommended to carry out wet cleaning daily. During the cleaning itself it is necessary to be in a bandage or a mask that will prevent dust from entering the mucous membrane. In addition, all bedding should be made only from hypoallergenic materials. It is also advisable not to keep “dust collectors” in your apartment. These include mattresses, rugs, fabric and soft toys, and more. In addition, do not forget that the blinds are much easier to clean than constantly washing heavy curtains. The furniture should be made of a material that can be wiped with a damp cloth. Acaricidal preparations should be used during cleaning, as they are capable of exterminating ticks that live in house dust. It is no longer a secret that these parasites are responsible for 50% of household allergies.
If the cause of mucosal irritation is the pollen of trees and flowers, then you will have to abandon trips out of town. You can arrange evening walks around the city (from 22 o'clock). It is at this time that the concentration of pollen in the air decreases. Also in the first half of the day you should not open your windows. The apartment can be installed air cleaner. Many companies strive to make their cosmetics on herbs. People with pollen allergies should refrain from using such substances. Also during the period when flowering begins, you can take a vacation and try to leave your region. Destination is better to choose the sea or mountainous terrain. In these areas, the concentration of pollen is always minimal.
Unfortunately, modern medicine has not yet developed measures that allow prevention and reduce the likelihood of developing allergic rhinitis. If the disease has already overcome a person, all prevention is reduced to reducing contact with an irritant, and a suitable remedy for allergic rhinitis is also selected. This is necessary because in the absence of proper treatment the disease will begin to progress. In this case, all existing symptoms will intensify.
Allergies and Pets
Approximately 15% of the population encounters difficulty when they develop an allergy to pet dander. But the reaction in man does not arise on the wool itself, but on what is on it. Animals can lick and leave their saliva and skin particles on the fibers. They cause irritation of the mucous membranes. But how? Animal cells are quite strong proteins, when they enter the human body with a weakened immune system, they begin to be perceived as a threat, and that’s what the defensive reaction works. Side effects of these “contacts” are manifested in allergies. These can include watery eyes, skin rashes, rhinitis, and asthma attacks. Most often, people are allergic to cats, but other animals can also be the source of such painful symptoms.
How to cope with pet allergies
It is often impossible to prevent this reaction to wool. But to minimize the risk of developing this type of allergy is possible. For this, preparation begins in childhood. If a child has a tendency to allergies, you should not immediately give a cat or another animal. If the baby continues to contact with the pet, his body will be able to develop a protective function, as a result, allergies can be avoided in mature years.
If the reaction to wool has already developed, you can use modern methods that are commonly used to treat other types of allergies.
- As in other cases, it is important to use antihistamines. They are necessary in order to neutralize the action of substances that cause symptoms. For example, it may be “Claritin”, “Benadril” - they are sold in pharmacies without a prescription. Also, the doctor can prescribe medications that are available only by prescription (for example, “Allegra”).
- Decongestants can also help here, as wool allergies can cause swelling of the mucous membranes. Such drugs do not allow mucus to stagnate. Such means include “Sudafed”.
- The doctor may also prescribe other drugs that successfully cope with asthma and allergic symptoms. For example, prescription steroids are usually prescribed for treatment - “Flonase” or “Nasonex”.
In addition to treatment, it is necessary to follow simple rules that help reduce the chances of exacerbation or the appearance of symptoms. Recommendations apply to pet owners.
- Bathe your pet and comb it out.
- Regularly organize wet cleaning in the rooms.
- The animal must lie down and sleep on its bedding, and not on the bed or chair of the owners.
- After contact with the pet, always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water.
- To reduce hair loss, try to make the nutrition of your pet balanced.
Having chosen the right treatment and taking all the preventive measures, you may be able to get along with your beloved pet on the same square.