Cancer of the tonsils is a malignant disease. It is characterized by the formation of a tumor. This ailment is considered to be a rare kind of oncology. In this case, most often, men suffer from tonsils. Cancer is diagnosed, according to statistics, in men of advanced age (from 60 years), and this type of oncology is found in this group almost 10 times more often than in women.
Brief description of pathology
Cancer of the tonsils develops in the oropharynx. Education increases in size and over time grows into a malignant tumor without borders. Tonsils in their biology are considered lymphoid tissues. In humans, six types of tonsils are distinguished:
- two palatines (located above the sky in the oral cavity);
- two pipe;
Of course, oncology can affect any of these species. However, cancer of the tonsil is most often diagnosed.
Initially, the ailment is manifested by an increase in lymph nodes, compaction, swelling, ulcer. Then metastases begin to develop. This pathology is a rapidly progressive disease. Doctors diagnose the disease by examining the oral cavity and lymph nodes.
As medicine says, one of the main and most common causes for cancer of the tonsils is the abuse of smoking and alcohol.
An equally important factor in the appearance of the disease can be the human papillomavirus. Today it is very common. As a result of unprotected oral sex, the virus can easily enter the oropharynx.
It is also worth noting that the causes of the disease can be:
- contact with harmful substances in production;
- the Epstein-Barr virus;
- chemotherapy in the past;
- abuse of immunosuppressants.
Classification of pathology
Physicians identify 3 forms of such a disease as cancer of the tonsils:
- ulcerative - the tissues of the tonsils themselves are destroyed;
- infiltrative - a significant increase in the size of the tonsils, edema;
- papillomatous - growths on the amygdala (papilloma, polyps).
Symptoms of the disease
The appearance of the disease in the body almost always proceeds asymptomatically. Therefore, it is very difficult to determine the cancer of the amygdala (photo allows you to visually inspect the disease) at the initial stages.
During the time when the tumor grows and grows in size, the patient begins to show some signs that characterize the disease.
Such symptoms can be:
- chronic sore throat;
- discomfort gives to the ears;
- lymph nodes increase in size;
- rapidly decreases weight, for no reason;
- can change the voice;
- there are discharge from the nose (they can even be purulent);
- it becomes difficult to breathe;
- in the future, otitis may occur, hearing is often impaired.
If you do not contact a doctor at an early stage, then there may be such serious violations as:
- jaco's syndrome - impaired vision, paralysis of the eye muscles, blindness;
- berne's syndrome-the onset of paresis, paralysis of nerves upon swallowing;
- kolle-Sikar syndrome - numbness of the throat, root of the tongue.
That is why it is very important, even with the slightest changes in your body, not to hesitate, but immediately to apply to competent specialists for help. This will protect you from the development of a variety of pathologies, including from such a serious ailment as cancer of the amygdala.
Symptoms typical for oncology, which must be paid attention:
- In the region of the vocal cords, tumors are formed. This leads to a disorder of the voice function, hoarseness. Over time, the voice may completely disappear.
- Sensation of foreign body in throat. The upper larynx is affected. There are pain when swallowing saliva or food.
- If the cancer is concentrated in the lower region of the larynx, then the uniformity of breathing is disturbed. The patient has shortness of breath.
The presence of such symptoms is an alarming sign, so contacting a doctor is unavoidable.
Stages of the disease
As is known, oncology is characterized by 4 stages of development. The cancer of the tonsils is not an exception.
- Nodules of small size. They reach a value of up to 2 centimeters. There are no special symptoms. Metastases are completely absent: they are not present either in lymphonoduses, or in the human body.
- There is a significant increase in lymph nodes in the cervical region. For this degree, the presence of metastases is already characteristic. The tumor is more than 2 cm - it extends beyond the mucous membrane. But education does not extend beyond the tonsils. Metastases go to the lymph nodes. The first symptoms appear: pain in the throat when swallowing.
- The tumor reaches a large size. It looks like a capsule. Education goes beyond the area of the tonsils, passes into the pharyngeal wall. Symptoms such as chronic pain in the throat, swelling of the neck, constant bad breath, saliva with blood, lymphatic metastases appear.
- The tumor grows into the organs and tissues of a person. The larynx and nasopharynx are damaged. Metastases spread throughout the body: the brain, spine, lymph nodes. Visible symptoms in the patient - a swelling of the neck and face, constant headaches, cramps, anemia.
Methods of diagnosis
How is cancer of the tonsils determined? Endoscopic examination is used to diagnose the disease. This is a medical examination, which is a pharyngoscopy. With the help of special technology, this method of diagnosis allows to increase the image of a malignant tumor. A biopsy is done during this study.
With the help of topographic methods it is possible to determine the prevalence of cancer in the body:
- scanning of the lymphatic system;
- laboratory research;
A laboratory blood test is also performed. After all, it is the main informative signal in the human body.
Blood will show the following parameters in tonsil cancer:
- low hemoglobin;
- the number of red blood cells is much lower than normal;
- the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation is high.
If the tests indicate the development of oncology, then it is necessary to immediately take a course of treatment under the supervision of an oncologist.
Ways to combat the disease
The necessary method of treatment is appointed by the doctor after it is fully determined at what stage the disease is. As a rule, surgical intervention is carried out in any case, if the diagnosis of throat cancer is diagnosed. Then, if necessary, the doctor prescribes chemotherapy, radiotherapy or radiotherapy.
If the patient is diagnosed with tonsillar cancer, the treatment is most often the following:
- Surgical intervention. It is carried out by an external or transoral method. In the presence of metastases, it is sometimes necessary to remove the lower jaw. In some situations, lymph nodes with fiber are excised.
- Radiation therapy. Before resorting to such therapy, it is necessary to sanitize the mouth. Then, the treatment or removal of the nodes is assigned. These measures help to avoid unpleasant complications.
- Chemotherapy. This procedure is most often combined with radiotherapy. In cancer of tonsils, doctors recommend that chemotherapy with the drug "Cisplatin".
As you know, radiation and chemotherapy are destructive to cancer. Although this treatment also damages healthy cells of the body. It can provoke: general weakness, nausea, immunodeficiency. After such treatment, the patient must undergo a whole course of recovery of the body.
The most unpleasant feature of this ailment is its asymptomatic course in the initial stages. A person does not disturb anything at all, and yet the destructive process is already taking place in the body. That's why doctors do not tire of repeating that their health should be treated as carefully as possible. If you are concerned about the throat, discomfort, discomfort and weakness in the body, immediately consult a doctor for help to avoid consequences.
Prognosis of the disease
Unfortunately, this is a very serious and unpleasant disease - cancer of the amygdala. The prognosis for this pathology is not very pleasant. After all, as previously stated, the disease is most often diagnosed at later stages, since it does not betray itself on the initial stages.
But in some cases it is possible to determine the development of the disease at the very beginning. Typically, this happens during the examination of the patient for entirely different reasons.
There is a scale of indicators of life for five years, when the disease is detected:
- 1st stage - 100%;
- 2nd stage - 83%;
- 3rd stage - up to 58%;
- 4th stage - 29%.
Can you reduce the chances of developing cancer? Doctors say that in most cases a person pushes himself toward the development of oncology. It is not for nothing that cancer is called a "man-made" disease. It is known that serious preconditions for the development of oncology are: carcinogens entering the body with food, alcohol, smoking, ignoring dental treatment, and non-compliance with oral hygiene. And this is far from a complete list of negative factors that can underlie severe oncological diseases.
So, the main methods of prevention are:
- refusal from bad habits (alcohol, smoking);
- observance of personal hygiene;
- periodic examination at the dentist and otolaryngologist;
- avoidance of carcinogens, ionizing radiation;
- protect yourself from the risk of contracting HPV.
But no matter how terrible the diagnosis may seem, it is quite possible to fight against it. The main thing is to pay attention to those signals that the body shows about its problems. In case of unpleasant symptoms or discomfort, always consult a doctor. After all, any disease must be started at an early stage. And then the forecast will be most favorable.