Pathological processes that affect the intestine develop gradually and at the initial stages practically do not disturb the patients. That's why people often remain without adequate medical care, until the disease goes into a chronic form. What symptoms indicate the diseases and how to treat the intestinal infection, we will understand together.
Intestinal diseases are a group of inflammatory processes that occur in the large and small intestine. As a result of various negative factors, lesions and thinning of the mucous membrane lining the internal organs occur. Gastroenterologists are engaged in intestinal problems.
Factors affecting the development of bowel pathology
Diseases of the stomach and intestines due to the impact on the body of negative factors, and in rare cases, the cause of inflammation is some one circumstance. The more different causes simultaneously affect the human body, the more difficult the disease will be and, as a consequence, it will be more difficult to treat it.
Factors that affect the development of any pathology of the intestine include:
- eating disorders;
- mental stress and stressful situations;
- bacterial intestinal infection;
- Alcohol abuse, smoking;
- taking certain medications (for example, antibiotics).
Diseases of the small intestine include enteritis (pathological abnormality of the small intestine), carbohydrate intolerance, gluten enteropathy (due to the lack of necessary enzymes in the body), vascular and allergic diseases of the small intestine, Whipple's disease and others. All of them begin their development due to a violation of the integrity or irritation of the mucous membrane lining the small intestine, due to improper nutrition or taking specific medications.
Diseases of the large intestine include colitis, including ulcers, Crohn's disease, diverticulosis and other irritations of the colon, tumors and other diseases. Most inflammatory processes in this area occur due to bacterial infection, but cases when the cause is a prolonged course of antibiotics, eating disorders and so on.
Diseases of the small intestine
If it is a case of intestinal disease, the symptoms and treatment depend on the negative factors that triggered the pathology. The small intestine is the longest part of the gastrointestinal tract. It is involved in the adsorption of nutrients from food. Considering diseases of the small intestine, it is necessary to take into account not only the factors of their appearance, but also their various combinations. This will allow the patient to be prescribed the most appropriate therapy.
Inflammatory processes that occur in the small intestine are called enteritis. Disease, as a rule, is acute or chronic. The cause of acute enteritis is usually an infection (food poisoning, "dirty hand" and so on). The characteristic symptoms of small intestinal diseases are expressed by the appearance of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other signs of general intoxication, as well as fever, fever. The causative agents are salmonella, cholera and other microorganisms of the typhoid paratyphoid group. Chronic enteritis is characterized by bacterial and protozoal infections, various disorders of the immune system. A feature of the chronic form of enteritis is the fact that it is preceded by an inflammatory or inflammatory-dystrophic disorder occurring in the small intestine. As a result of such a violation, a person develops digestive problems, multiplies pathogens in the small intestine, which leads to immune and metabolic problems.
Symptoms of small bowel disease
With bowel disease, symptoms and treatment depend on the severity of the inflammation and the location of its localization. Symptoms of the disease can range from mild to severe. The periods of the active phase of the disease are replaced by periods of remission. The clinical picture of inflammation of the small intestine is characterized by the following manifestations:
- diarrhea - is a common problem for people with similar diseases;
- high body temperature and increased feeling of fatigue - often with problems with the intestine, a person has a low-grade fever, he feels exhausted and broken;
- abdominal pain, colic - inflammation and ulceration of the small intestine mucosa may affect the normal movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract and thereby cause pain and spasms;
- the presence of blood in the stool - it is usually indicative of internal bleeding of the small intestine;
- decreased appetite - abdominal pain and colic, as well as the presence of an inflammatory process in the body, tend to dull the feeling of hunger;
Rapid weight loss.
Clinic of chronic diseases of the small intestine is due to the development of recurring diarrhea and syndrome of impaired absorption. Diarrhea is provoked by hypersecretion of water and calcium ions in the body, intestinal hyperexcitation, increased osmotic pressure and impaired transport function of intestinal contents. The syndrome of impaired absorption is a consequence of recurrent diarrhea.
Symptoms of the chronic form of the disease include the syndrome of enteral dispersion (the appearance of unpleasant sensations in the abdomen around the navel). In addition, the patient is tormented by a rumbling and bursting feeling in the lower abdomen, a swelling. Pain in the abdomen can be spastic, cramping or obtuse. If the pain intensifies after eating, it means that the disease has gone to a neglected form.
Diseases of the large intestine
Diseases of the large intestine include chronic inflammation of all or parts of the large intestine. First of all, it is ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Both diseases are associated with severe diarrhea, agonizing pain in the abdomen, a sense of fatigue and weight loss. If a person has a suspicion of bowel disease, symptoms and treatment should be identified as soon as possible, since the lack of adequate therapy can lead to life-threatening complications.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease that causes the formation of ulcers along the inner wall of the colon. Crohn's disease is characterized by inflammation of the mucosa of the entire gastrointestinal tract, the inflammation usually spreads deep into the affected tissues and can affect both the thick and small intestines. Collagen and lymphocytic colitis are also considered diseases of the colon, but are usually considered separately from classic inflammatory bowel diseases.
The exact causes of inflammatory bowel disease are still unknown. Previously, the pathological factors include stress, the abuse of diets. Now doctors know that such reasons can aggravate, but not provoke the problem. It is believed that the most common diseases of the large intestine are due to a bacterial infection that penetrates it with poor-quality food, drinks, and the use of antibacterial drugs. Also, one of the possible causes is a violation of the immune system and heredity. Problems with the intestine also appear due to the narrowing of the blood vessels in the colon and the violation of its blood supply. As a rule, this reason is typical for the elderly.
Symptoms of diseases of the large intestine
Many signs of intestinal diseases are typical and resonate with each other. Characteristic symptoms include abdominal pains of a dull or cramping character, spasms are possible. The internal surface of the large intestine is covered with sores that can bleed. Patients complain of morning fatigue, defecation with the release of blood and mucus, anemia (with the loss of large amounts of blood), soreness of the joints. Often when the disease occurs uncontrolled weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, flatulence, dehydration. Often the patient has anal fissures.
It is very important that such a disease of the large intestine, the symptoms of which can be mistaken for other diseases, was timely diagnosed. In the absence of adequate treatment, the patient is at increased risk for complications (oncology, fistulas, intestinal ruptures and intestinal obstruction).
Chronic enterocolitis is a simultaneous inflammation of both the small and large intestines, which is characterized by atrophy of the mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the intestines, which causes a disturbance of intestinal functions. Depending on the location of the inflammatory process, the disease is classified for thin (enteritis) and thick (colitis) intestines separately.
The causes of chronic enterocolitis are caused by the impact on the human body of the following pathological factors:
- long-term malnutrition;
- impaired immunity and metabolism;
- hormonal disorders, stress;
- intoxication with medicines and chemicals;
- features of the structure of the intestine;
- diseases of internal organs;
- intestinal and parasitic infections.
One of the most common pathogens of chronic enterocolitis are intestinal lamblias (a photo of these parasites can be considered in the article). They are able to multiply rapidly and cause lambliasis. Signs of the disease include diarrhea, excess gas, spasms and abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting. Lamblias, whose photos are presented in the picture, exist in two forms: active and inactive. Active forms of parasites live in the human body, when they go out together with the feces they go into an inactive form and spread the infection outside the body.
Chronic enterocolitis often results from untimely or poor-quality treatment of acute forms of inflammatory bowel processes. In addition, there is a risk of inheritance and people who have been breastfed for infancy.
Adhesive disease of the intestine
Adhesions are thin fibrous tissues formed in the abdominal cavity due to various negative factors. Adhesive bowel disease, the symptoms of which are often expressed in the appearance of spasmodic pain, is especially dangerous to humans. The main complaint of patients, as a rule, is chronic abdominal pain, the nature of which is trudny to determine. Sometimes there is an intestinal obstruction, constipation, frustration. In addition, an adhesive disease of the intestine, the symptoms of which may be similar to gynecological problems, often becomes the cause of female infertility.
The main symptoms of the disease include discomfort in the navel, convulsions, a feeling of raspiraniya stomach. In places where spikes appear, there is a twisting of the intestine, which prevents the normal movement of its contents. Possible the development of complete intestinal obstruction. Unfortunately, not many methods of diagnostics are able to detect adhesions: they are not visible both on the X-ray and ultrasound. They can be considered when using contrast barium in computer tomography. Treatment of adhesions is performed by laparoscopic surgery or in open surgery by dissecting the adhesions with a scalpel or electric current.
Diagnosis of bowel diseases
Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease should only be after the elimination of other possible problems. This requires a combination of diagnostic tests. Diagnosis of bowel diseases includes the following tests and procedures:
- Blood test - it is necessary to control the level of hemoglobin.
- Analysis of feces to detect blood in it.
- Colonoscopy - allows you to view the entire rectum with a thin flexible tube with a camera connected to it. During the procedure, the doctor can take samples of tissues for additional analysis (biopsy).
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy - is carried out with the help of a thin flexible tube with a light sensor, which allows to inspect the sigmoid region of the large intestine.
- Upper endoscopy - the doctor uses a thin flexible lighted tube to examine the esophagus, stomach and the first part of the small intestine.
- Capsular endoscopy - is performed for the diagnosis of Crohn's disease.
- X-ray diagnostics - is necessary for serious problems with the intestines, in order to avoid serious complications (for example, perforation of the large intestine).
- Computer tomography - the method allows you to consider more different details in the picture than with x-rays. The test evaluates the entire intestine, as well as the tissue outside it.
- Magnetic resonance imaging - is a particularly effective method for the exclusion of fistulas, ruptures and other complications.
Treatment of intestinal diseases
To effectively heal bowel diseases, the symptoms and treatment must be closely interrelated. The goal of treating inflammatory bowel diseases is to reduce the inflammatory process, which causes symptoms and causes discomfort. Adequate therapy will not only facilitate the manifestation of the disease, but also lead to a prolonged remission, reduce the risk of complications. Before treating intestinal infection, the doctor conducts a thorough diagnosis, which will allow selecting the most effective methods of therapy.
Treatment can be carried out by medicinal, folk and surgical methods. Medications can relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. Immediately it should be said that many patients will have to take medication for an extended period of time. The choice of medications depends on the localization of the inflammation, the severity of the symptoms of the disease and will be aimed at preventing recurrence of the disease. Sometimes it may be necessary to combine medicines, supplement medicinal therapy with folk recipes.
For the treatment of intestinal infections and inflammatory processes, the following categories of drugs are used:
- anti-inflammatory drugs (aminosalicitales, corticosteroids);
- antibacterial drugs (for example, the drug "Ciprofloxacin");
- immunomodulators (Methotrexate, Azathioprine preparations);
- disease modifying agents (drugs "Infliximab", "Adalimumab").
Treatment with medication should be accompanied by changes in diet, stress reduction, observance of rest. A very important stage of treatment is that patients are observed a diet with bowel disease. The diet should consist of healthy balanced foods with enough protein and nutrients. The diet is selected individually for each individual patient. The general recommendations for proper nutrition include the following:
- eat small meals throughout the day;
- drink plenty of clean water (up to 2 liters in small portions, evenly distributed throughout the day);
- avoid foods high in fiber (legumes, nuts, bran);
- refuse from fatty and fried foods, sauces, products that cause bloating;
- Limit dairy products (with lactose intolerance);
- during treatment it is important to take vitamins B12, D, calcium, iron supplements.
Often, treatment of bowel diseases is performed surgically. The main operations, called resections, involve the removal of affected areas of the intestine. Treatment of abscesses and fistulas in the anus area is performed with the help of surgical intervention followed by drainage.
The correct digestive function begins with a good overall health. The organs of the gastrointestinal tract depend on a reliable immune system that is able to withstand infectious factors. Preventative measures are aimed at improving the health and well-being of a person.
- To give up smoking. Everyone knows that smoking provokes heart disease, lungs, causes hypertension. According to statistics, 30% of all diseases caused by smoking, account for the digestive system, more than 40% of them are bowel diseases. Smoking increases the risk of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, worsens the liver and pancreas, etc.
- Control of body weight. Obesity, especially if excess weight is localized in the abdomen, causes diseases of the digestive system, esophageal diseases and rectal cancer are especially likely.
- Active lifestyle. Studies show that physical activity reduces the risk of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal disorders in the elderly.
- Balanced diet. The rejection of foods high in fat contributes to weight loss. In addition, healthy food is rich in fiber, which contributes to the normal functioning of the intestine.