Habitat is a combination of conditions and elements that are necessary for human life. Some of them can be indifferent, without others it is impossible to exist, and still others can have a negative impact. Therefore, it is difficult to live in a modern society to people who have limited mobility. Especially if the optimal barrier-free environment is not created. Let us consider in more detail.
In a modern society in which there should be equal opportunities for all users, the most important indicators of quality are the comfort of their life. Therefore, the creation of a barrier-free environment is one of the basic directions of the social policy of any democratic state. This, of course, is also about Russia.
The concept of "barrier-free environment" is contained in a number of legislative acts of the Russian Federation, in which it is interpreted in different ways. If we generalize the existing definitions, we can draw the following conclusions.
In modern Russian society, conditions are created for all categories of citizens, including disabled people. The barrier-free environment consists of such elements of the environment that provide free movement and use by people with various types of violations (physical, sensory or intellectual). Functioning in such conditions allows citizens with special health opportunities to lead an independent life from no one or anything. Consequently, an accessible environment for people with disabilities is a familiar environment that is tailored to suit their needs.
Social Policy of Russia. The program "Barrier-Free Environment"
Within the framework of international agreements and national legislation, certain actions are being taken to implement the tasks set in the program. Active conditions are created to ensure that people with disabilities have the opportunity to fully develop their abilities, play sports and integrate into society as much as possible.
The basic criterion for assessing social policy is the availability of physical environment for such citizens. It is about the possibility of using housing, transport and information channels; Get education and work.
Until recently, in the Russian practice of urban planning, the organizations of all types of services did not take into account the special needs of disabled people. At present, the situation has radically changed, there are a number of resolutions.
The formation of a barrier-free environment is an important task, which is paid attention in the design of construction, reconstruction and major repairs. As a result, the estimated cost increases in the range of 6%. Usually this is a significant amount. But these costs only seem to be excessive at first glance. Consider the main advantages.
The economic effect of creating a barrier-free environment
The formation of accessible conditions for the life of disabled people has a significant economic result.
Firstly, the organization of a barrier-free environment gradually reduces the need for residential care, and the costs of building and maintaining them are reduced. This is one of the main achievements of the program.
Secondly, there are new taxpayers. Many able-bodied people with disabilities are able to get a job. This is in the situation of the demographic "pit" and in the presence of a shortage of labor resources in many regions, solves a large number of problems.
Thirdly, it is possible to arrange the fate of some citizens with special health opportunities, who are able to move independently and not depend on anyone.
As the statistics show, as a result, the available expenses of the state pay off within five to ten years.
Currently, most barrier-free cities in Russia are already creating a barrier-free environment. Moscow in this list takes a leading position.
"Low-mobility" groups of the population having a disability
Categories of citizens who have limited health opportunities are characterized by different types of physical and other restrictions. Naturally, a barrier-free environment for them must meet the specific needs of their livelihoods.
But this requirement can be attributed to other categories of citizens who are not distinguished by some or other physical limitations. Creating certain conditions will make their life more comfortable.
- persons with disabilities who have musculoskeletal disorders;
- persons with disabilities who have hearing and vision impairments.
Low-mobility population groups without disabilities
- persons from 60 years;
- temporarily incapacitated for one reason or another;
- women "in the position";
- people who carry baby carriages;
- preschool children.
The impact of creating a barrier-free environment for all social groups
Creating comfortable living conditions can affect the quality of life of all citizens, even without physical limitations.
A smooth descent, a congress and an established ramp will not only help disabled people. Other citizens are more comfortable to climb or descend on an inclined surface.
Handrails are also needed for the elderly, women "in the position", children and people with obesity. Even very mobile people who do not have physical limitations, in bad weather or ice, will prefer to take advantage of those stairs that are equipped with handrails.
Contrast beacons, which are necessary for people with limited vision, will help other people to freely navigate, and sound signals created at crosswalks for hearing-impaired people were used by everyone.
Barrier-free environment in school
Thanks to the state program "Barrier-free environment", every child with limited health opportunities has a chance to attend an educational institution. At present there is at least one equipped school in every district of Russia.
The main changes for the creation of a special environment in a general education institution should be carried out in the following areas.
First, for the movement of disabled people, it is necessary to equip the porch and build ramps, install collapsible platforms and expand doorways. This will allow this category of citizens to feel confident and safe.
Secondly, for the orientation of children with visual impairments, it is necessary to paint with contrasting color the extreme steps of the stairs. For this category it is recommended to install special light beacons that will help this student to move freely around the educational institution.
Thirdly, for the rehabilitation of children in schools, health offices and multi-sensory rooms are created, in which classes are held with specialists.
Fourth, the cabinets should be equipped with modern equipment and special furniture. This will help improve the learning process.
Fifth, for people with limited mobility, modern information technology is a real "window" to the outside world. Therefore, schools should be fully equipped with all necessary.
For children with limited opportunities, it is necessary to create a barrier-free environment. Thanks to this, they will be able to realize their potential.
For a full life of low-mobility people it is required to significantly change the modern infrastructure.
Thanks to the state system of measures formed in recent years, a barrier-free accessible environment for disabled people is gradually being created. This is achieved through the production of special technical means, individual and public transport, informatics and communications.
Considerable attention is paid to the reconstruction of educational institutions. This will allow children with disabilities to study with their classmates.