In recent years, oncological diseases quite often become the main cause of high mortality among the population. Cancer cells can affect absolutely any tissues in the human body, causing various pathological processes. Let's consider in detail what the basal cell carcinoma is, what are its causes and whether it is possible to cure this ailment.
What is this type of cancer?
This type of cancer is also called basal cell. Most often it develops on the face, neck or nose. Prefers to hit a male population older than 40 years. It is noted that representatives of the Mongoloid race and the Negroid are not susceptible to this type of cancer.
The name "basalioma" has gone from the fact that oncological cells begin their development from the basal layer of the skin, located deeper than all.
Causes of skin cancer
At present, the question of histogenesis (the totality of the processes leading to the formation) of this disease has not yet been fully resolved. Many people are of the opinion that basal cell carcinoma of the skin develops from pluripotent epitheliocytes. Differentiation can occur in different directions. Let's list some reasons that, in the opinion of the majority of specialists, can provoke the development of this pathology:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Infringements in work of immune system.
- External influences of unfavorable factors.
- Development against a background of senile keratosis, radiodermatitis, tuberculous lupus, psoriasis.
Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (photo shows this) occurs most often in the epidermis and hair follicles. It grows slowly and very rarely gives metastases. Some doctors consider basaloma not as a cancer or benign formation, but as a tumor with locally destructive growth.
Quite often, under the influence of strong carcinogens, for example X-rays, basal cell carcinoma of the skin turns into carcioma.
Provocators of basal cell carcinoma
There are a lot of risk factors for this disease:
- The most serious provoker is ultraviolet irradiation.
- Belonging to the male sex. It is noted that his representatives are much more likely to experience such a disease.
- Presence of light skin. It is established that people with dark skin practically do not suffer from this pathology.
- Inclination of the skin to sunburn.
- Work under the open sun for a long time. As you approach the equator, the frequency of this disease increases. Most often, basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the face or neck develops.
- High concentration of arsenic in drinking water. Those who are forced to work with this substance are at risk.
- Polycyclic aromatic resins can also cause the development of this disease. They can be contained in coal tar, slates, soot.
- Long-term use of immunosuppressants.
- Some hereditary pathologies, for example albinism or pigment xeroderma.
- Chronic ulcers.
- Thermal burns.
- Ionizing radiation.
It was also found that excessive insolation (irradiation with sunlight) in childhood can subsequently lead to the development of cellular cancer.
Classification of basal cell carcinoma
If we consider histology, then this pathology is classified as undifferentiated and differentiated cancer. The first category includes:
- a solid basalioma;
The differential is divided into:
- keratotic basal cell;
According to the international classification, the following variants of skin cancer are distinguished:
- Solid basal cell carcinoma. This form is most often found and represents strands and cells that are compact. Basaloid cells do not have clear boundaries, in the center they can be with dystrophic changes and cystic cavities.
- Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the skin (its photo you can see in the article) is characterized by diffuse pigmentation due to the melanin content.
- A superficial variety of cancer often forms multiple foci. Relapse can occur after therapy on the borders of the rumen.
- Scleroderm-like is characterized by a strong development of connective tissue, into which the basal epithelial cells are embedded. They can penetrate deep inside, down to the subcutaneous tissue.
- Malignant tumor with glandular differentiation is also called adenoid. It is distinguished not only by the presence of large areas, but also by narrow epithelial cords, which consist of several rows of cells forming an alveolar or tubular structure.
- Basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the right cheek with ciloid differentiation. It is distinguished by the presence of foci with keratinized areas, which are surrounded by squamous cells.
- Cancer with sebaceous differentiation is rare.
- Fibroepithelial type is a very rare type of basal cell. Usually distributed in the lumbar region and the sacrum. Clinically it can resemble fibropapilloma.
Types of basal cell type
There is a classification of this pathology and the type of manifestation. There are the following types:
- Ulcers and ulcers of the basal cell. Consider this basal cell carcinoma of the skin. The initial stage (the photo confirms this) is characterized by the appearance of a nodule on the eyelids, in the corners of the mouth. Skin covers around pink or reddish color with a matte or shiny surface. After some time, the nodule is transformed into an ulcer with a greasy coating. After some time, a vascular network appears on the surface, the ulcer is covered with a crust, and seals form along the edges. Gradually, the ulcer starts to bleed and sprout into the deeper layers of the skin, but metastases are not formed.
- If the ulcer is scarred in the center, and the growth continues along the edges, then it is a cicatrical-atrophic basalioma.
- The perforating basioma develops most often in places that are often injured. It resembles a nodular-ulcerative form, but it develops at a much higher rate.
- The warty form of cancer in its appearance resembles the head of cauliflower.
- Nodular appearance is a single nodule that develops upwards and protrudes above the surface of the skin.
Only after the form and type of the disease is determined, the doctor determines how to treat the basaloma. Of course, there can be no question of any self-treatment.
Symptomatic of the disease
Quite often, if there is basal cell carcinoma of the skin, the initial stage (photo confirmation) flows completely without symptoms. In rare cases, slight bleeding is possible.
Patients can complain that a small ulcer appeared on the skin, which slowly increases in size, but it is absolutely painless, sometimes itching.
Clinical manifestations of basal cell tumors depend on the shape of the tumor and its location. The most common is the nodal basal cell. It is a hemispherical node with a smooth surface of pink color, in the center of which there is a small depression. The knot grows slowly and resembles a pearl.
When a superficial form of cancer appears plaque with clear boundaries, raised and having waxy-shining edges. Its diameter can be from 1 to 30 mm. It grows very slowly.
If the basal cell carcinoma of the skin is cicatricial, it looks like a flat scar of a grayish-pink color, slightly pressed into the skin. The edges are uplifted and have a pearly hue. On the border of education, erosion occurs, covered with a pink-brown crust. During this form of cancer, there are periods when scars predominate, and erosions are very slight or absent.
The ulcerative form of basal cell is characterized by the destruction of soft tissues and bones that are near the tumor. Ulcers are irregular in shape, their bottom is covered with a gray-black crust, it is usually hummocky, and the edges are elevated.
By the way, there is also basal cell carcinoma of the skin in a cat (primary-multiple). On the body of the animal, you can see a lot of basalomas, besides, there are disturbances in the psyche, which are manifested by inadequate behavior, in addition, the pathology of the skeleton develops. This type of malignant tumor is characterized by slow growth, the depth of the lesion and the risk of relapse will depend on its size, location, cellular characteristics, immunity state.
In humans, basal cell carcinoma of the skin is the most dangerous. The treatment is rather complicated in this case. Pathology, as a rule, is localized on the face, skin around the eyes and nose.
Scleroid-like form of basal cell is also a great danger to humans. But the pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the skin prognosis is favorable. This form of treatment lends itself well.
How can you diagnose a disease?
In order to make an accurate diagnosis, it is sometimes enough for an experienced specialist to look at a patient. Clinical manifestations of this type of cancer are quite typical, and diagnostic difficulties do not arise. On the surface, most often the doctor discovers single or multiple foci of microerosions, which are covered on top with easily detached crusts.
Patients most often find problems when they are diagnosed with a dermatologist, but the oncologist should be engaged in therapy in this case. If you analyze the smear-scarifier from erosive sites, it is almost 100% of the cases to confirm the diagnosis.
If cytological and histological studies cause some doubt, the patient is biopsy of the lymph nodes.
It is important when diagnosing basaloma from lupus, melanoma, keratosis or psoriasis. After all the examinations, if the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor chooses a method of therapy strictly individually. This disease does not have a similar approach to the treatment of all patients.
Therapy of pathology
After the diagnosis of "basal cell carcinoma of the skin" is confirmed, treatment should be started immediately. Most often use the following methods to combat this pathology:
- electrocoagulation and curettage;
- radiation therapy;
- mos's method, which consists in excising a tumor with intraoperative microscopy of frozen horizontal sections, so that the volume of the forthcoming operation can be determined.
The choice of the method of therapy depends entirely on the location of the tumor, its size, the features of the flow and the state of the patient's body. Dermatologists usually prefer to use electrocoagulation at the beginning of therapy. But it must be remembered that this method of treatment is effective if there are small tumors and they are located in non-dangerous places.
If a histological examination is required, then the excision method is used. It is most often used in the presence of tumors with malignant course and located in dangerous places, for example, on the face or head. With it, you can get a good cosmetic result.
Radiation therapy in the presence of basal cells is rarely used, but if surgical intervention is impossible, it is simply irreplaceable. Doctors admit that it is quite effective. Without irradiation can not do and with a high degree of malignancy of the tumor. At the same time, one should be careful about radiation therapy in young patients, since the risk of development of radiation dermatitis and induced malignancies is high.
If we consider the method of Moss, then it allows you to maximize the preservation of healthy tissue. This method is effective in relapsing tumors, large sizes and dangerous localization. If there is an excision for the eyelid, then also resort to that method of therapy.
If a cancerous tumor on the skin was formed quite recently, then it is preferable to use close-focus X-ray therapy. And in advanced cases it is combined with surgical intervention.
The technique of cryodestruction of the tumor, that is, its removal with liquid nitrogen, is widespread. This procedure takes a little time and is absolutely painless for the patient. There is, however, one drawback: a positive result can be obtained only if the neoplasm is superficial and does not affect the deeper layers of the skin.
When the location of the basal cell on the face is often resorted to its removal with a laser. It is safe and painless, after the intervention, as a rule, a short period of rehabilitation and an excellent cosmetic effect.
If there is a basal cell carcinoma of the surface type, then local treatment with cream "Ftoruracil" is prescribed. Recently, studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of injections of this drug into the lesion sites. If the cancer on the skin appears for the first time and has a small localization, then injections of interferons are used.
Operative treatment of basal cell carcinoma
Surgical removal of basal cell is effective at the first stage of treatment. And also if a relapse occurs, or the tumor develops at the site of the scar. During the operation, the tumor is removed, but this method of therapy is undesirable to use if lesions are present on the face.
The operation is performed under local anesthesia, the tumor is removed to the border with healthy cells, for reliability even slightly affecting them.
Consequences of basal cell carcinoma of the skin
There are several types of skin cancer, and depending on this, the course and prognosis of pathologies can also be different. If we talk about the effects of basal cell carcinoma, it should be borne in mind that this tumor most often has a compact arrangement, rarely penetrates into and affects the lymph nodes.
But if the neglected form of cancer is located on the head and neck, then the process of destruction of the tissues of these parts of the body begins. It can even reach the bones, muscles and tendons.
Of all types of skin cancer, this is the most cosmetically unpleasant and slowly developing. But it, including thermal stages, can be susceptible to surgical treatment. Therefore, if your attending doctor recommends surgery, do not be afraid, you must agree. Despite all its ugliness, the described type of skin cancer gives patients a chance to recover even in the most neglected cases.
Those who have already faced basal cell carcinoma of the skin have to take special care to prevent relapse. After treatment of the basal cell, all the doctor's recommendations should be observed:
- In the period of solar activity, that is, in summer, it is necessary to limit the stay in the street from 11 hours to 17. At this time, ultraviolet radiation is the most aggressive, so its impact should be avoided. If there is a need to go out into the street, it is worth applying a special protective cream on the skin and using headdresses and glasses.
- Without proper nutrition, it is impossible to maintain your immune system at the proper level. It is necessary to limit the number of animal proteins, they can be replaced by vegetable, for example, nuts, beans.
- In the diet should be more vegetables and fruits.
- If the skin has old scars, then it is necessary to take measures to prevent their injury.
- All sores and wounds on the skin should be treated in a timely manner. If they tend to poorly heal, then it is necessary to consult a doctor.
- If your work is related to contact with petroleum products, then you should take extra care, always use protective equipment.
Cancer of any form and type is a dangerous disease. It is better not to allow its development, but it is not always in our power. If this happens, then do not give up and prepare for the worst. Currently, medicine has stepped far ahead, and sometimes in the most neglected cases, there are miracles.
Be attentive to your health, and then everything will be fine.