From parents you can often hear that a child after a walk on the street suddenly begins to sneeze, it has an itch in the nose, a sore throat, swelling. All these signs indicate that the baby is faced with an allergen, and the body gave a similar reaction. It's one thing when it happens during the flowering season of plants, ragweed, dandelions, but there are situations when such symptoms are manifested all the year round. At the first signs it is necessary to consult a doctor. The immunologist, after a preliminary examination, will ask for an analysis of the allergen. At children it is spent by several methods, practically painlessly. Which one is more informative, we will try to understand the article.
Why do children develop allergic reactions?
According to doctors, about 40% of the population on the planet suffer from allergies. This disease occurs because of a malfunction in the body. Antigen, getting into the blood, comes into contact with the bodies of immunoglobulin E, and all would be nothing, but there is a reaction and there are such substances as serotonin and histamine. They also provoke the body at the onset of the inflammatory process.
The immunology studies such a science. In Moscow and other cities, immunology doctors help to cope with a person with such a disease as an allergy. They have vast experience, conduct modern tests, analyze, can identify a product or plant, which reacts to the body.
As a rule, similar problems arise in people living in large cities, with gassed air, a huge cluster of enterprises. Often the disease can be found in children. Strong allergens can deliver a lot of trouble, starting with the usual itching and ending with Quincke's swelling.
Why do children suffer from this disease? There may be several reasons:
- The use of a future mother to eat allergenic foods during pregnancy.
- Absence of breastfeeding.
- Early introduction of complementary foods.
Doctors are sure that even banal weakening of immunity can be the cause.
Recognize the insidious disease
Many people ask about how the disease manifests itself. After the substances (allergens) get into the blood, the body begins an inflammatory process. The first symptoms can be:
- Weak rhinitis, nasal congestion.
- Redness of eyelids, eyes.
- Rashes on the skin.
- Dry cough.
- Sore throat.
Many symptoms can be confused with banal ARVI, but if they occur without a rise in body temperature, have a cycle, appear suddenly and just as imperceptibly pass, it is worth to see a doctor - it is possible that the child has an allergy.
The first symptoms were found, what to do next?
If parents suspect that their child is allergic, you should see a doctor. Many mothers do not hurry to do this and spend an elimination test at home. Its essence is to independently identify the allergen. The child is put on a strict diet, the products that presumably give a similar reaction are excluded. This process is rather protracted and, as a rule, inconclusive. Such tests can be carried out only if the symptomatology does not disturb the child and his general condition is normal.
In any case, after a visit to the clinic, the doctor will suggest an analysis of the allergen. In children, it is carried out in several ways: blood sampling from the vein, subcutaneous therapy. But before that you need to make a clear history. It will include the following items:
- Detailed diet of the baby.
- The presence of pets in the house.
- Check household conditions.
- Response to vaccination.
After all clarified questions, the immunologist will determine what allergens to analyze.
Will the analysis show the presence of an allergen in the blood?
The analysis for allergens, the price of which is quite high, often catches the parents by surprise. Many are not prepared to spend a lot of money to find out which product or plant is affecting the child in a negative way.
Before conducting such an analysis, it is necessary to find out whether there are allergens in the blood of the child. To do this, it is enough to take blood from the vein. The essence of this analysis is to reveal the concentration of immunoglobulin E. In all healthy people this component is present in a small amount. Normally its value is about 100 units per 1 ml of blood. If the indicators are increased, we can safely say that there is a chain reaction, due to which allergic manifestations appear.
How to prepare for the analysis correctly
To take tests for allergens, no special preparation is required. The only thing to consider is:
- Do not conduct an analysis during an exacerbation.
- Before donating blood you need to be sure that the child does not have helminths.
- Do not take antihistamines within 7 days.
- The child should be absolutely healthy.
More detailed instruction should be carried out by the attending physician.
Skin tests: do they make sense?
The analysis for the allergen in children is carried out in the case when the doctor sees the first signs of the disease. It is better to do it right away without delay, so as not to aggravate the situation. After all, it can end with anaphylactic shock or terrible chronic diseases (asthma, dermatitis and much more).
The analysis for allergens in a child is of two types: a blood test and a skin test. The latter is very popular. You can see the result immediately, it is painless, relatively inexpensive. Each type of introduced allergen costs about 500 rubles. The essence of this method is that a small incision is made on the skin of the child. The procedure is painless, often the wound resembles a usual scratch. There the putative allergen is introduced, after a short period of time the doctor evaluates the skin condition. If there is swelling, swelling, redness, this indicates that the body reaction has begun.
Skin analysis for allergens in a child can be done repeatedly. Doctors often take several samples. But you need to do this with extreme caution, so as not to cause a baby attack.
There are contraindications
Analysis for allergens, the price of which can reach up to 50 thousand rubles, is accurate. But informative only for a month. Before you take it, you need to get a check-up from a doctor. Only an immunologist can correctly make a list of substances, products, plants, to which you need to take samples. So, the baby, who is on breastfeeding, there is no need to introduce an allergen of exotic fruits.
Contraindications to conduction may be in the case of:
- recent surgical intervention;
- exacerbation of allergic reactions;
- climate change;
- presence of helminths.
In all other cases, it will suffice:
- observe an easy diet for 14 days;
- during the same time not to take antihistamines.
It is desirable that the analysis is taken at a time when the child is completely healthy.
Parents to note
I would like to note that the allergy is a rather insidious disease and it should be treated with full responsibility. The consequences can be depressing. Daily people in the modern world die from anaphylactic shock, not knowing about what products, substances, medicines they have allergies. So, the bee sting for many can end with Quincke's swelling.
Even if your child has never had any allergic reactions, there must always be an antihistamine in the medicine cabinet. Fenistil is suitable for younger children, Suprastin, Claritin, Loratadin and much more can be offered to older ones. Especially indispensable for these drugs on vacation, because climate change often provokes allergic manifestations.
To treat this disease is necessary. If the allergy is seasonal, it will be enough to take medication during an exacerbation. But there are cases when the allergen is home dust, tissues and other things and objects that are our constant companions of life. In this case, doctors offer conservative treatment. In the blood is injected into small doses of an allergen, the body produces protective antibodies to it.
In any case, the treatment should appoint a doctor, and he can do this only by making an analysis of the allergen. Children do not have any difficulty in collecting material. Diagnosis is practically painless, but quite expensive.