Any allergic rhinitis is a sign of disturbances in the functioning of the immune system. First isolated such a common cold in a separate disease about 100 years ago. This was done by a scientist who himself suffered during the flowering of plants. He was in the winter time near the mown hay and again began to sneeze. At that moment, he suspected that his state of health was a reaction to certain substances in the air. This disease is also called hay fever.
Types of problems
Experts say that there may be two types of allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment are similar. So, some people face only seasonal problems. In this case, allergic rhinitis is due to the appearance of pollen of plants, which reacts to the body. The greater its concentration near a sick person, the more noticeable the manifestations of diseases.
But some suffer from a common cold all year round. In this case, patients react, most likely, to dust, saliva of animals, wool, dust mites, mold fungi or other irritants. Some people respond to so-called professional allergens: paints, solvents, varnishes, cement and other chemicals.
Causes and characteristics of the disease
Experts have long said that any allergies are problems with the immune system. It produces histamine when in contact with an irritant. This process provokes an allergic rhinitis. The reasons for its appearance lie in the hypersensitive reactions of the immediate type that arise upon contact with the stimulus. It is the immune system that begins to fight the inhaled particles and stimulates the appearance of the common cold.
She considers allergens to be foreign substances. The organism, which first collided with them, begins to produce special antibodies. At subsequent contacts, they begin to struggle with the allergens they know. But at the same time, histamine and other substances that lead to the appearance of symptoms are secreted. The whole process is called sensitization by specialists.
Symptoms, as a rule, appear quickly enough: it can pass from a few seconds to 20 minutes. They arise because of the reaction of the peripheral and central parts of the nervous system, which give rise to a change in the nasal mucosa. There is swelling of the tissues, narrowing the nasal cavity, breathing is disrupted, the tone of the vessels of the mucous membrane of this organ changes. In addition, there is increased secretion of goblet cells, increased secretory function of the glands, the appearance of a large layer of mucus over the cilia of the cylindrical ciliated epithelium.
In addition, a decrease in the absorption capacity of the nasal mucosa is characterized by an allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment of this disease depend on its course and duration. Equally important is the general well-being of a person.
First signs of problems
In contact with allergens, the body works most of the time in an instant. Symptoms can disappear on their own in a few days. The maximum period during which rhinitis can last is 10 days. But we must understand that the disease can only pass when there is no contact with the irritating substance. Otherwise, the allergic rhinitis may last for a long time. Symptoms of this disease are always pronounced:
- sneezing: appears a few minutes after inhaling the allergen or in the mornings;
- runny nose: secreted mucus is liquid and transparent, but when nasal infection is attached it becomes yellow and viscous;
- discomfort in the nasopharynx, there may be a cough;
- Itching in the nose, ears, throat.
Also, eyes often become inflamed, there may be a slight swelling in the face.
People who have never encountered such a disease, it seems that all this is not so scary. But an allergic rhinitis can greatly complicate life, because its manifestations affect well-being, appearance, working capacity.
Prevention of disease
Many people suffering from acute reactions of immunity to irritants, never even visited a profile doctor - an allergist. But in vain. A specialist could pick up medications that will ease the condition, and tell you what to do so that the allergic rhinitis does not appear. Prevention (symptoms should not appear yet) is aimed at preventing the development of the disease. The best preventive measure is preventing contact with the allergen. To do this, it is advisable to make samples and find out which substance you are reacting to.
To prevent the development of the disease or minimize its manifestations can be as follows. We must try not to go out into the fresh air early in the morning, avoid any trips to nature. The windows can be veiled with a thick cloth so that the pollen does not have the opportunity to get into the rooms. Also recommend as often as possible to wash the nose and eyes. This will help to clear the mucous membranes from the allergens that have fallen into them and prevent the onset of the disease, if you know that you can exacerbate an allergic rhinitis. Komarovsky EO claims that this disease also arises as a reaction to the excessive purity and abundance of household chemicals in the home. The best measure of prophylaxis is nose flushing and maximum contact with potential allergens. He says that before the appearance of the baby in the house you can even get a dog, it will also help to ensure that the child does not have allergies.
But other doctors do not recommend people with hypersensitivity to keep flowers at home and use cosmetics (except for special hypoallergenic series). Adherence to these recommendations, perhaps, will not relieve completely from allergies, but it can significantly alleviate your condition.
Symptoms of the disease
If at first the person is only concerned about a runny nose, frequent sneezing and itching, then over time there are other signs that the specialist can diagnose an allergic rhinitis. Symptoms that occur with time may be as follows:
Sniff, constantly stuffy nose;
- mouth breathing (arises from the constant stuffiness of the nose);
- problems with hearing, a feeling of pressure in the ears;
- unpleasant sensations in the face;
- allergic bruises - dark circles appearing under the eyes.
The intensity of the manifestation of symptoms throughout life can vary. At certain moments they can become aggravated, in other periods - practically to come to naught. Often there is an allergic rhinitis during pregnancy. Children are more sensitive to allergens. It happens that, growing up, they become less susceptible. Frequent use of perfumes, work that has strong odors, contact with wood or cigarette smoke only worsen the situation.
If you notice an exacerbation of allergies in the spring-summer period, then, most likely, you have a reaction to pollen. But there are people who are much worse in winter, at a time when most of the time has to be spent indoors. In this situation, allergens should be sought among dust, domestic mites, animals living in houses, plants on the windowsill.
If you have a feeling of itching, sneezing and mucous discharge from the nose began, do not try to immediately run to the pharmacy for antihistamine drugs - the cause of the ailment may be quite different. Now let's talk about how to distinguish an allergic rhinitis from a cold. With absolutely identical symptoms, treatment requires different. Cold coryza in most cases is accompanied by other symptoms characteristic of acute respiratory diseases. It can be a fever, body aches, coughing, pain in the goal, a hoarse voice. In addition, with infectious diseases, secretions are often viscous, they are colored yellow or greenish.
If you know what exactly you are allergic to, then in all possible ways minimize contact with the stimulus. With seasonal manifestations of the disease, you need to spend as little time as possible on the street, constantly wash your nose, try to move around by car, bus, minibus, and close windows at home. This is the only way to reduce the manifestations that characterize an allergic rhinitis.
A collection of tips can recommend relieving the condition with the help of antihistamines. Preparations of the first generation are able to eliminate symptoms, but they have many side effects. They depress the nervous system, weaken attention, provoke a feeling of lethargy and constant fatigue. These include such drugs as "Suprastin" and "Dimedrol". More modern drugs only block histamine receptors and do not affect the general condition. In addition, to achieve the necessary effect, drink the new generation of drugs enough once a day. These include drugs "Claritin", "Zirtek", "Aleron" and others. Systemic drugs in the form of tablets, capsules or syrup, are usually prescribed in cases where the patient is concerned about several symptoms at a time, and not just an allergic rhinitis.
Prevention and treatment of mucocutaneous discharge from the nose are carried out using local means. If necessary, a novocaine blockade can be made, injecting hydrocortisone into the area of the inferior nasal cavity. But such radical measures are used in extreme cases. Most often, with rhinitis of an allergic nature, eye drops and nasal sprays are recommended that can alleviate the condition in less than an hour. The allergist can write out such means as "Kromoglin", "Kromosol" - they are used for mild pathology. In more severe cases, corticosteroids are recommended: Nasobek, Nazarel, Nazonex, and Benorin.
Another method of control is the injection of allergens. But such tactics can only be used when the stimulus has been established. Therapy is carried out in the following way: first allergens are introduced into the body in small doses, then its concentration is increased. This is done until there is a tolerance to the irritants that cause an allergic rhinitis. Prevention with this approach to treatment you no longer need, because the body stops responding to the substance that caused the disease.
Specialists identify several stages of the pathology we are considering. And all of them are accompanied by an allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment will depend on the severity of the manifestations and on what type of diseases it can be attributed.
Seasonal rhinitis refers to the syndrome of pollinosis, in which the nose and eye are primarily affected. If the patient has a genetic predisposition to the disease, then his body begins to produce antibodies to stimuli. As a result, there are all known manifestations. They can be expressed both in the form of abundant mucous discharge from the nose, and be combined with conjunctivitis. In severe cases, bronchial asthma may accompany these symptoms. In humans, there are often signs of intoxication: fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances and even a rise in temperature.
As a rule, the allergic rhinitis develops against the background of general health during the active flowering of plants. In the nose there is a sharp feeling of itching, it is accompanied by multiple sneezing, difficulty breathing and abundant clear mucous discharge. Most people have seizures for a couple of hours and can be repeated several times a day.
At the time of an attack, the nasal mucosa is saturated with blood, it can become cyanotic, edematous. At the same time, the nasal conchae are enlarged, they cover the passages. Some also note the irritation of other mucous membranes - the larynx and trachea suffer. Cough appears, viscous sputum is released, voice hoarseness is observed.
The exacerbation stops at the time when the active flowering of the plants ends. At inspection in a healthy status of any pathological changes are not present. True, some diagnose a curved nasal septum, mucous polyps, contact spines.
But there are people who can be bothered all year round with an allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment in this case will be somewhat different. This type of allergy differs in that it has no pronounced exacerbations, it is impossible to track the periodicity. But the symptoms are less pronounced than with seasonal rhinitis.
Chronic allergic rhinitis has 4 conditional stages:
- aperiodic transient attacks;
The first stage is characterized by moderate symptoms, there are occasional minor exacerbations. Patients react to hypothermia, drafts, this provokes an exacerbation of the disease. At the same time they periodically have a stuffy nose, a feeling of dryness in the mouth, lethargy, poor sleep, increased fatigue, and sometimes there may be attacks of dyspnea. The permeability of cell membranes also begins to break at this stage. Such an allergic rhinitis during pregnancy is a rather frequent phenomenon.
If the doctor notes that there are signs of degeneration of the nasal mucosa, this means that the situation is deteriorating. This indicates the beginning of the second stage. At the same time, the mucosa becomes pale, a gray hue appears, granular formations visible at the ends of the middle and lower nasal concha. At this stage, breathing is constantly hampered, the sense of smell is practically nonexistent. The effect of the use of vasoconstrictive drugs is almost not noticeable.
After a while (it can take several months, and about 4 years) polyps grow in the nasal passage. They look like formations, similar to bags hanging in the lumen of the nasal passage on the stalk. In most cases, they are clamped between the nasal septum and its lateral wall.
At the stage of carnification, the tissues of the lower and partially middle nasal concha are considerably compacted and become insensitive to vasoconstrictors. This process may be accompanied by the appearance of bouts of bronchial asthma. The general symptoms that characterize the disease become permanent.
Diseases of children
Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for an allergic rhinitis in a child. Symptoms and treatment, as well as in the case of adults, will depend on the form and course of the disease. Children can have seasonal or year-round rhinitis. The disease proceeds in the same way as in adults. But children often runny nose, which is due to allergies, reduces the overall resistance of the body. Because of this, the disease is complicated by the addition of viral or bacterial infections.
Seasonal or chronic allergic rhinitis in children is accompanied by edema of the nasal cavity, active release of mucus. Children complain of itching in the nose and eyes, they constantly sneeze. The disease is often accompanied by a cough. But this, by the way, can be a sign of the development of bronchial asthma.
Any allergic rhinitis in a child often gives complications in the form of the appearance of acute (and sometimes chronic) otitis, sinusitis, attachment of various ARI. If you do not treat the baby, it is fraught with the development of inflammation in the nasal paranasal sinuses.
If possible, it is necessary to eliminate the irritant or reduce the contact of the baby with it to a minimum. In other cases, you need to know how to distinguish an allergic rhinitis from a cold, and start a competent treatment on time. All drugs should be selected together with a doctor. A child should be treated either by a pediatrician or a child allergist. The doctor chooses the drugs that are suitable for age and calculates the necessary dosage.
You can not ignore the allergic rhinitis in children and adults. This is fraught with the deterioration of the situation. Therapy is symptomatic (elimination of manifestations of the disease) and allergen-specific. The patient is prescribed funds that mitigate the manifestation of allergic reactions, sedative and vasoconstrictive drugs. To reduce the swelling and eliminate the stuffiness can be with the help of drops and sprays that have a vasoconstrictive effect: Xylometazoline, Nafazolin, Sanorin, Naftizin, Nazivin, Tizin and others. But use them is not worth more than 10 days in a row.
However, symptomatic treatment can produce the expected results only in the event that it is possible to eliminate the stimulus. Otherwise, it is also necessary to use antihistamines, corticosteroids or immunotherapy. The first group of drugs include such drugs as Zirtek, Aleron, Claritin, Ketotifen and others.
If the patient's condition is too high, then allergists recommend using corticosteroids. The doctor may prescribe such drugs as "Fluticasone" or "Beclomethasone". They should be used, as a rule, for a month. They are also suitable for those who suffer from bronchial asthma. These funds are prescribed and in the event that there is an allergic rhinitis in the child. Symptoms and treatment in toddlers and adults alike.
Immunotherapy consists in carrying out a number of procedures designed to reduce sensitivity to the allergen. The irritant can be injected into the human body so that it is used to it and stops responding. Begin with small doses, which eventually increase.
Doctors do not get tired of saying that it is fraught with an allergic runny nose. The collection of advice on the treatment of folk remedies can, of course, be found, but one should not hope to get rid of the disease with their help alone.
Among the most popular recommendations are the following. Many advocates of alternative medicine are advised to bury the nose with the juice of calendula, red geranium or mother-and-stepmother. In addition, you can gargle with a watery infusion of valerian or motherwort.
You can remove swelling with various physical exercises. This recommendation is based on the fact that the load stimulates the sympathetic nerves, and as a result, the vessels narrow and the allergic rhinitis decreases.
Treatment with herbs is also possible. Some recommend brewing celandine, insist it for at least 4 hours and drink. It is believed that with a cold, duckweed also helps. Her infusion (prepared from 1 tablespoon herb and 0.5 liters of water) should be drunk in the mornings for several weeks.
Another popular recommendation is the use of activated carbon in the acute period of the disease. It can be taken 2 tablets up to 5 times a day. This method helps to reduce the effects of intoxication.
Even if you are an ardent adherent of traditional medicine and do not recognize conservative methods of treatment, be aware: if there is an allergy, it is better to make an exception. After all, this disease not only significantly complicates life, but can lead to a number of serious complications.