Any allergic rhinitis is a sign of abnormalities in the immune system. For the first time allocated such a cold in a separate disease about 100 years ago. This was done by a scientist who himself suffered during the flowering of plants. In winter, he was near the mown hay and began to sneeze again. At that moment, he suspected that his state of health was a reaction to certain substances in the air. This disease is also called hay fever.
Kinds of problems
Experts say that there may be two types of allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment are similar. So, some people face only seasonal problems. In this case, allergic rhinitis owes its appearance to the pollen of plants, to which the body reacts. The greater its concentration near the sick person, the more noticeable the manifestations of the disease will be.
But some suffer from a cold all year round. In this case, patients are likely to respond to dust, animal saliva, wool, dust mites, mold fungi or other irritants. Some have a reaction to the so-called professional allergens: paints, solvents, varnishes, cement and other chemicals.
Causes and characteristics of the disease
Experts have long been saying that any allergies are problems with the immune system. It produces histamine upon contact with an irritating substance. This process provokes allergic rhinitis. The reasons for its occurrence are rooted in hypersensitive reactions of the immediate type, which occur upon contact with an irritant. It is the immune system that begins to fight with inhaled particles and stimulates the appearance of a cold.
She considers allergens to be foreign substances. The organism, which first encountered them, begins to produce specific antibodies. With subsequent contacts, they begin to struggle with allergens familiar to them. But it releases histamine and other substances that cause symptoms. Specialists call this whole process sensitization.
Symptoms, as a rule, appear fairly quickly: it can take from a few seconds to 20 minutes. They arise because of the reaction of the peripheral and central parts of the nervous system, which give impetus to the change of the nasal mucosa. Edema of tissues appears, the nasal cavity narrows, breathing is disturbed, the vascular tone of the mucous membrane of this organ changes. In addition, there is an increased secretion of goblet cells, an increased secretory function of the glands, the appearance of a cylindrical ciliated epithelium above the cilia of a significant layer of mucus.
In addition, a decrease in the absorption capacity of the nasal mucosa is characterized by allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment of this disease depend on its course and duration. The general well-being of a person is also important.
First signs of problems
In contact with allergens, the body in most cases works instantly. Symptoms may disappear on their own after a few days. The maximum period during which rhinitis can last is 10 days. But we must understand that the disease can pass only when there is no contact with the irritating substance. Otherwise, allergic rhinitis may persist for a long time. Symptoms of this disease are always pronounced:
- sneezing: appears a few minutes after inhaling the allergen or in the morning;
- runny nose: the secreted mucus is liquid and clear, but when a nasal infection is attached, it becomes yellow and viscous;
- discomfort in the nasopharynx, may cough;
- itching in the nose, ears, throat.
Also, often inflamed eyes, there may be a slight swelling of the face.
To people who have never experienced such a disease, it seems that all this is not so scary. But allergic rhinitis can greatly complicate life, because its manifestations affect the well-being, appearance, performance.
Many people suffering from aggravated immunity reactions to stimuli have never even visited a specialist allergist. And in vain. A specialist could pick up drugs that will ease the condition, and tell you what to do to prevent allergic rhinitis. Prevention (symptoms should not yet appear) aims to prevent the development of the disease. The best preventive measure is to prevent contact with the allergen. To do this, it is desirable to make samples and identify which substance you have a reaction.
To prevent the development of the disease or to minimize its manifestations can be as follows. We must try not to go out into the fresh air early in the morning, avoid any trips to nature. Home windows can be hung with a thick cloth so that the pollen is not able to get into the rooms. It is also recommended that you wash your nose and eyes as often as possible. This will help clear the mucous membranes of allergens from them and prevent the onset of the disease if you know that your allergic rhinitis can worsen. Komarovsky E. O. argues that this disease also occurs as a reaction to the excessive purity and abundance of household chemicals in the house. He considers nasal washing and maximum contact with potential allergens to be the best preventive measure. He says that before the appearance of the baby in the house, you can even have a dog, this will also help ensure that the child does not have an allergy.
But other doctors with hypersensitivity do not recommend keeping flowers at home and using cosmetics (except for special hypoallergenic series). Compliance with these recommendations may not completely relieve allergies, but it can significantly alleviate your condition.
Symptoms of the disease
If at first a person is worried only by a runny nose, frequent sneezing and itching, then over time there are other signs on which a specialist can diagnose an allergic runny nose. The symptoms that occur over time may be as follows:
- sniffling, constantly stuffy nose;
- mouth breathing (occurs due to the constant nasal congestion);
- problems with hearing, feeling of pressure in the ears;
- unpleasant sensations in the face;
- Allergic bruises - dark circles that appear under the eyes.
The intensity of the manifestation of symptoms throughout life may vary. At certain moments, they can worsen, in other periods - almost go to naught. Often there is an allergic rhinitis during pregnancy. Children are considered more sensitive to allergens. It happens that, growing up, they become less susceptible. Frequent use of perfume, work on which there are strong odors, contact with wood or cigarette smoke only worsen the situation.
If you have noticed an exacerbation of allergy in the spring and summer period, then most likely you have a reaction to pollen. But there are people who are much worse in winter, at a time when they have to spend most of their time indoors. In this situation, allergens must be sought among the dust, household mites, animals living in the house, plants on the windowsill.
If you have a feeling of itching, sneezing and nasal mucous discharge began, do not try to immediately run to the pharmacy for antihistamines - the cause of the indisposition may be quite different. Now let's talk about how to distinguish allergic rhinitis from a cold. With exactly the same symptoms, treatment is required different. Colds in most cases, accompanied by other, characteristic of acute respiratory diseases symptoms. This may be fever, body aches, cough, pain in a gol, hoarse voice. In addition, in infectious diseases, secretions are often viscous, they are colored yellow or greenish.
If you know what you are allergic to, then it is necessary to minimize contact with an irritant by all possible means. When seasonal manifestations of the disease is necessary to spend as little time as possible on the street, constantly flush your nose, try to move by car, bus, shuttle bus, and close the windows at home. This is the only way to reduce the manifestations that characterize allergic rhinitis.
A collection of tips may recommend alleviating the condition with antihistamines. First-generation drugs can eliminate symptoms, but they have many side effects. They inhibit the nervous system, weaken attention, provoke a feeling of lethargy and constant fatigue. These include such drugs as Suprastin and Dimedrol. More modern drugs only block histamine receptors and do not affect the general condition. In addition, to achieve the desired effect, it is enough to drink the means of a new generation once a day. These include drugs "Claritin", "Zyrtec", "Aleron" and others. Systemic preparations in the form of tablets, capsules or syrup, as a rule, are prescribed in cases where the patient is worried about several symptoms at once, and not just allergic rhinitis.
Prevention and treatment of nasal mucous secretions are carried out using local means. If necessary, Novocainic blockade can be made, injections of hydrocortisone into the region of the inferior turbinate. But such radical measures are used in extreme cases. Most often, for rhinitis of an allergic nature, eye drops and nasal sprays are recommended, which can alleviate the condition in less than an hour. An allergist can write out such means as "Kromoglin", "Cromosol" - they are used in the mild form of pathology. In more severe cases, corticosteroids are recommended - “Nasobek”, “Nazarel”, “Nasonex”, “Benorin”.
Another method of struggle is the injection of allergens. But such tactics can be used only in the case when the stimulus has been installed. Therapy is carried out as follows: first, an allergen is introduced into the body in small doses, then its concentration is increased. This is done until tolerance to stimuli that cause allergic rhinitis is developed. Prevention with this approach to treatment you will no longer need, because the body stops responding to the substance that caused the disease.
Specialists identify several stages of the pathology we are considering. And all of them are accompanied by allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment will depend on the severity of the manifestations and on what type of diseases it can be attributed to.
Seasonal rhinitis is referred to as pollinosis syndromes, which primarily affects the mucosa of the nose and eyes. If a patient has a genetic predisposition to the disease, then his body begins to produce antibodies to stimuli. As a result, well-known manifestations arise. They can be expressed in the form of abundant mucous discharge from the nose, or combined with conjunctivitis. In severe cases, bronchial asthma may join these symptoms. In humans, there are often signs of intoxication: fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances, and even fever.
As a rule, allergic rhinitis develops against the background of general health in the period of active flowering of plants. A sharp feeling of itching appears in the nose, it is accompanied by repeated sneezing, difficulty in breathing and abundant transparent mucous secretions. For most people, seizures last for a couple of hours and can be repeated several times a day.
In moments of attack, the nasal mucosa is saturated with blood, it can become bluish, edematous. This increases the nasal conchs, they block the passages. Some also note irritation of other mucous membranes - larynx and trachea suffer. A cough appears, viscous sputum is secreted, hoarseness is observed.
Exacerbations cease at the time when the active flowering of plants ends. When examined in a healthy state, there are no pathological changes. True, some are diagnosed with a curved nasal septum, mucous polyps, contact spikes.
But there are people who can be bothered all year round by allergic rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment in this case will be somewhat different. This type of allergy is different in that it does not have pronounced exacerbations, it is impossible to track the frequency. But the symptoms are less pronounced than with seasonal rhinitis.
Chronic allergic rhinitis has 4 conditional stages:
- aperiodic transient attacks;
The first stage is characterized by the fact that the symptoms are mild, occasionally minor exacerbations occur. Patients react to hypothermia, drafts, it provokes the aggravation of the disease. At the same time, they periodically have a stuffy nose, a feeling of dry mouth, lethargy, poor sleep, fatigue, and sometimes shortness of breath. Also at this stage, the permeability of cell membranes begins to break down. Such an allergic rhinitis during pregnancy is a rather frequent phenomenon.
If the doctor notes that there are signs of degeneration of the nasal mucosa, this means that the situation is worsening. This indicates the beginning of the second stage. At the same time, the mucous membrane becomes pale, a gray tint appears, granular formations that are noticeable at the ends of the middle and lower turbinates. At this stage, breathing is constantly difficult, the sense of smell is practically absent. The effect of the use of vasoconstrictor drugs is almost not noticeable.
After some time (it may take several months, or about 4 years) polyps grow in the nasal passage. They look like formations, similar to bags, hanging down into the lumen of the nasal passage on the leg. In most cases, they are clamped between the septum of the nose and its lateral wall.
At the stage of carnification, the tissues of the lower and partly middle nose shells are noticeably compacted and become insensitive to vasoconstrictor agents. This process may be accompanied by the appearance of attacks of bronchial asthma. The common symptoms that characterize the disease become permanent.
Unfortunately, it is often possible allergic rhinitis in a child. Symptoms and treatment, as in the case of adults, will depend on the form and course of the disease. Babies can have seasonal or year-round rhinitis. The disease is the same as in adults. But children often have a runny nose that appears due to allergies, which reduces the overall resistance of the body. Because of this, the disease is complicated by the addition of viral or bacterial infections.
Seasonal or chronic allergic rhinitis in children is accompanied by swelling of the nasal cavity, active secretion of mucus. Children complain of itchy nose and eyes, they constantly sneeze. The disease is often accompanied by coughing. But this, by the way, may be a sign of the development of bronchial asthma.
Any allergic rhinitis in a child often gives complications in the form of the appearance of acute (and sometimes chronic) otitis, sinusitis, joining of various acute respiratory infections. If you do not treat the baby, it is fraught with the development of inflammation in the nasal sinuses.
If possible, it is necessary to eliminate the irritant or minimize the contact of the baby with it. In other cases, you need to know how to distinguish allergic rhinitis from a cold, and begin a competent treatment on time. It is better to select all preparations together with the doctor. A child should be treated or a pediatrician, or a children's allergist. The doctor selects suitable for age drugs and calculates the required dosage.
You can not ignore the allergic rhinitis in children and adults. This is only fraught with worsening of the situation. Therapy is symptomatic (elimination of the manifestations of the disease) and allergen-specific. The patient is prescribed funds, mitigating the manifestation of allergic reactions, sedatives and vasoconstrictor drugs. To reduce swelling and eliminate congestion, you can use drops and sprays that have a vasoconstrictive effect: Xylometazoline, Nafazolin, Sanorin, Naphthyzin, Nazivin, Tizin and others. But they should not be used for more than 10 days in a row.
However, symptomatic treatment can produce the expected results only when it is possible to eliminate the irritant. Otherwise, it is also necessary to use antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunotherapy. Such drugs as Zyrtec, Aleron, Claritin, Ketotifen and other similar drugs can be attributed to the first group of drugs.
If the patient’s condition is too advanced, then allergists recommend using corticosteroids. The doctor may prescribe such drugs as fluticasone or beclomethasone. They must be used, usually for a month. They are also suitable for those who suffer from asthma. These funds are prescribed in the case when there is an allergic rhinitis in a child. Symptoms and treatment in babies and adults alike.
Immunotherapy consists of a series of procedures designed to reduce the sensitivity to the allergen. An irritant can enter into the human body so that it is used to it and stops responding. Begin with small doses that increase over time.
Doctors do not get tired to say that it is fraught to allow an allergic rhinitis to drift. A collection of advice on the treatment of folk remedies can, of course, be found, but one should not hope to get rid of the disease only with their help.
Among the most popular recommendations are the following. Many supporters of alternative medicine advise to bury the nose with calendula juice, red geranium or coltsfoot. In addition, you can gargle water infusion of valerian or motherwort.
It is possible to remove edema with the help of various physical exercises. This recommendation is based on the fact that the load stimulates the sympathetic nerves, and as a result, the vessels narrow and the allergic rhinitis is reduced.
Treatment with folk herbs is also possible. Some recommend brewing celandine, insisting it for at least 4 hours and drinking. It is believed that duckweeds also help with rhinitis. Her infusion (prepared from 1 tablespoon of herbs and 0.5 liters of water) must be drunk in the morning for several weeks.
Another popular recommendation is the use of activated carbon in the acute period of the disease. You can drink it 2 tablets up to 5 times a day. This method helps to reduce the appearance of intoxication.
Even if you are an ardent supporter of traditional medicine and do not recognize conservative methods of treatment, you should know: in the presence of allergy it is better to make an exception. After all, this disease not only significantly complicates life, but also can lead to a number of serious complications.