Acne is a serious inflammatory disease of the skin. It occurs in the so-called pilosebatsionnyh structures of man. These structures consist of sebaceous glands and hair bulbs.
History of the term
The term that defines such a disease as pimples in adolescents, appeared in ancient Greece. For the first time it is mentioned in the works of Aetius Amidsky, who worked as a doctor from the Byzantine emperor Justinian I in the 6th century AD.
The very concept of "acne" is a derivative of the ancient Greek concept, in a literal translation denoting "the height, blossom, point."
Causes of the disease
Specialists identify several reasons for acne in adolescents. Treatment is possible, but requires diligence and careful compliance with all prescriptions of the doctor.
One of the main causes of acne is heredity. Also, doctors identify hormonal activity in adolescence, when the girls begin the menstrual cycle, and acne in adolescent boys appear during puberty.
Acne can also occur due to problems with the gastrointestinal tract, stress, hyperactive sebaceous glands, a large accumulation of dead skin cells, may also be a consequence of the use of anabolic drugs, as well as preparations containing halogens.
At physicians most widespread there was a version that spots at teenagers arise owing to exclusively hormonal activity. However, later the scientists found out that the disease is provoked by many hormones. In particular, testosterone.
In the post-pubertal period, pimples in teenage girls are rare. In this case, this is already a symptom of a serious illness, for example, Cushing's syndrome. At the same time, excessive carbohydrates in the diet lead to skin defects.
Classification of the disease
To understand how to help with this problem, it is important to understand what kind of acne is observed in adolescents. Treatment depending on the type of disease will be different.
Physicians distinguish several basic forms. First, comedonal. It is characterized by the appearance of closed acne on the chin, forehead and wings of the nose. In this case, inflammatory processes, as a rule, do not occur.
Another form is papulo-pustular. It is manifested by the appearance of purulent formations, both open and closed. The number of pustules is small.
Acne in adolescent boys is often manifested in the nodular form. Their characteristic location is on the forehead, chin, nose and cheeks. At the same time, a minimum of 25-30 pustules appears.
The most problematic is the severe form. In this case, adolescent acne fuses with pustules, deep and painful knots appear, large areas of the skin become inflamed. If you do not provide timely assistance, then this form is fraught with the appearance of scars and scars on the skin.
Physicians identify the most diverse types of rashes and acne in adolescents. Treatment is possible, in most cases, even the traces of the disease do not remain on the skin. Apart from a person, inflammation can manifest on the chest, especially in the upper part, and on the back. After all, it is in these areas that the largest sebaceous glands are located. Acne also provokes inflammatory processes, because of which there are purulent formations.
Purulent vesicles, which specialists call pustules, dry up after dissection. Because of this, crusts also form, after which noticeable scars remain.
Scars after acne are of several kinds. The most dangerous and unpleasant are deep, with the formation of a characteristic skin acid.
Angular scars often appear on the temples and cheeks. They are very similar to the effects of chicken pox. Keloid scars can also occur.
In general, the clinical picture is diverse for acne in adolescents. Treatment can be painful, the process can go on for many years.
Most often in adolescence, there is a disease that has the Latin name acne vulgaris. Adolescents 14 years are particularly susceptible to this form. It arises because of excessive sebum secretion with glands, which clogs the pores. Accumulation of these elements is due to a violation of the keratinization process. It is also called keratinization, when cells die in the epidermal layer of the skin.
Ultimately, all this leads to exfoliation of skin cells. The sebum then concentrates under the pores blocked by the disease. All these factors form a favorable environment for the propagation of harmful microorganisms.
Bacteria that cause acne
When acne pores in adolescents become inflamed due to the multiplication of bacteria, the most dangerous of which is propionibacterium acnes. It feeds on fatty acids of sebum. Its name was given for the derivative of one of the metabolites - butyric acid.
The bacterium is very sensitive to antibiotics from the group of tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolone drugs are also used to control it. One of the most popular among them is Adifloxacin.
With a bacterium, ultraviolet rays compete well. Also, some doctors recommend the use of aminolevulinic acid. However, it often causes side effects in patients.
Most often this bacterium affects the face and upper part of the neck, although there are exceptions. Among the rare manifestations that this bacterium can cause is the formation of purulent and sebaceous cysts. They can leave scars on the skin.
Treatment of acne in adolescents requires patience and endurance, it will not be possible to defeat this disease at one time. The main task is to eliminate the root cause - seborrhea.
This is a painful condition of the human skin, caused by extremely strong sebum. Such problems arise due to violations of one or several functions of the sebaceous glands of the skin. For example, nervous or endocrine.
Clear signs of the patient's seborrhea - oily shiny skin, itching, flaking, hair loss and dandruff. It can also manifest as a thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis.
To get rid of this disease, use the means "disulfide selenium", "ketoconazole", "lithium succinate". Before the use of drugs, a doctor's consultation is mandatory.
Use of antibiotics
Often the best means of acne in adolescents are antibiotics. They are necessary for a severe course of the disease. In former times, funds were used, the effectiveness of which has not been proven to date. This is a transfusion to the patient of his own blood, and estrogens, and wiping with salicylic acid solution, and ultraviolet irradiation, and cryotherapy.
For effective control of acne, it is necessary to remove comedones - a special kind of cyst that appears when the hairs are blocked by horny masses. It can be a desiccated epithelium along with thick fat. The acne is then opened.
To combat acne, specialists use disincrustation. This is the process of removing the fatty rod of the eel with the help of vacuum or galvanization.
Galvanization in physiotherapy implies a direct impact on the patient's body with a constant and continuous current of small force and tension. The goal is exclusively curative and preventive. Galvanization is performed through contact electrodes applied to the body of the patient, they must come into contact with the problematic areas of the skin that are most susceptible to the disease.
Prevention of Acne
In order to prevent the appearance of youthful acne and rash in adolescence, an important preventive point is the timely treatment of seborrhea.
There are also several key factors that will save you from such diseases. This is compliance with the regime. It is necessary to devote enough time to a sound healthy sleep, to lead an active lifestyle. As much time as possible to spend in the fresh air, walk more often, do not forget about physical exercises.
An important element in the prevention of acne is the observance of a strict diet. If you want to defeat teenage pimples, then categorically exclude from your diet fats, especially refractory, and oils.
Many experts advise the use of zinc-based drugs as a prophylaxis. This substance depresses the activity of the sebaceous glands, the probability of subsequent inflammation gradually reduces to zero.
How to treat acne earlier
For many centuries, mankind has tried to find an effective and qualitative method of treating acne. With this problem, people have come across throughout their history.
Even in Ancient Rome for the control of acne adolescents used special baths and consumed mineral water. In the XIX century, sulfur was actively used to treat acne and acne. In the 1920s, doctors took on benzoyl peroxide. This is a special organic compound, the use of which, however, has not confirmed its effectiveness. In the 1930s, American doctors stuffed their patients with laxatives to fight acne.
And only since the 1950's began to use antibiotics. In the 1960s, tretinoin was actively used. It is a pharmacological preparation containing a large amount of vitamin A. It has not only an antiseborrhoeic effect, but also helps to cope with tumors, local inflammation. It is often used to reduce the number of wrinkles. The due effect is achieved due to the strengthening of the regenerative function of the cells and their subsequent updating.
On the market today, you can find many different drugs that are based on tretinoin. There are, for example, very effective and effective creams from acne.
Since the 1980s, medics have been actively using the drug "Isotretinoin". This drug is a real salvation for many dermatological diseases. In its essence, it is a structural analogue of vitamin A.
With acne, the mechanism of action is as follows. The drug first reduces the thickness of the upper layer of the epidermis. Once it gets on the skin, it begins to have little effect on the cells of the stratum corneum. Because of this, they peel and slough. There is a peeling effect. Thus, the thickness of the stratum corneum of the epidermis decreases as much as possible. This is useful, because it consists, basically, of already dead cells. This process makes the pores of the skin open, which prevents the formation of acne or fatty plugs.
Further, the drug uses its comedonolytic properties. It dissolves fatty plugs, because of which the pores of the skin are constantly in a clogged state. The skin is relieved of acne. In addition, it is an effective prevention of the formation of acne in adolescence.
Also, "Isotretinoin" minimizes the activity of the sebaceous glands. But this is one of the main factors that cause acne, acne and acne. The increased activity of the sebaceous glands ultimately leads to the fact that the ducts are opened, and an increase in the production of the fat secretion provokes the blockage of the pores.
"Isotretinoin" can most effectively normalize the function of the sebaceous glands, reduce their secretion.
In the 1990s, laser systems began to be used actively in clinics to combat acne.
Preparations against acne
Today on the shelves of pharmacies you can find a large number of drugs, with varying degrees of success allowing you to fight acne.
These can be local bactericidal agents. They are used for mild forms. However, frequent use of such drugs leads to excessive dryness of the skin, irritation and redness.
Outside use local antibiotics, such as "Erythromycin", as well as tetracycline antibiotics.
For oral administration, such antibiotics as "Doxycycline", "Limecycline", and sometimes dermatologists prescribe "Trimethoprim".
In recent years hormonal therapy has been actively used. It is especially effective for women. Drugs should be taken in the complex. For example, estrogen along with progestogen.
The effectiveness of many retinoids, especially those contained in gels and ointments, has been proven. For example, it is "Effezel", "Klensit", "Izotreksin."
Also retinoids are used inside. Necessity arises in severe forms of acne. In this case, dermatologists are prescribed to the patient "Isotretinoin".
Well-established such a popular method, as phototherapy. For treatment use special lamps or a laser, with the help of which the effect of local sterilization of inflammatory foci is achieved.
In rare cases, dermatologists are also used to treat acne azelaic acid (usually with mild forms of the disease) and zinc.