Acne (acne) is a common skin disease that occurs due to inflammation of the hair follicles. Danger to life such a disease does not carry, but gives a lot of trouble to the person.
Acne is mainly localized to the skin areas with the largest sebaceous glands. This is the face, upper half of the chest, back.
Acne can be hereditary. Provoke its appearance may infection, endocrine and immune disorders, diseases of the digestive system, nervous system disorders. Acne on the face can appear in the adolescent period and disappear on its own. Most often occurs in representatives of the stronger sex.
Causes of Acne
Among the main reasons for the development of this skin disease are the following:
1. Hormonal changes that affect the work of the sebaceous glands. Many women note the appearance of acne on the face before critical days. Also, during the period of gestation, the future mother has increased progesterone level, which leads to excessive production of sebum.
2. Hereditary factors.
4. Treatment with certain drugs, such as corticosteroids.
5. Pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine diseases.
6. Increased activity of the sebaceous glands.
7. Damage to the skin, which is accompanied by inflammation.
8. The problem of acne can occur when hygiene is not observed or, conversely, excessive cleanliness.
Acne in an adult can occur due to the use of comedogenic cosmetics. The desire to mask the defect with a thick layer of foundation leads to the aggravation of the problem.
In addition, complicating the condition may try to squeeze out a pimple. This should not be done in any case. If acne on the face is accompanied by an infection, then such actions will lead to the fact that acne will progress, and the microbes will enter the bloodstream. Because of the close connection of the blood vessels of the face with the vessels of the brain, such actions can have serious consequences, up to a lethal outcome.
In girls, the use of contraceptives with progesterone can lead to aggravation of acne. If the female body has an excess of male sex hormones, then reduce the manifestation of the disease will help contraceptives that have antiandrogenic effect.
Possible forms of acne disease
There are non-inflammatory and inflammatory forms of acne, which are characterized by their unique characteristics. The degree of the disease is determined by the number of rashes, the location of acne on the body, the presence or absence of certain elements of the rash.
Disease of acne can manifest itself as black (open comedones) or white dots (closed comedones), papules, pustules, cysts. In the first case, acne has the appearance of enlarged and clogged skin pores. In the second one - clogged pores with a small hole. From black points you can get rid by yourself or with the help of a cosmetologist. White to remove yourself is difficult, you need specialist advice.
Papules have the appearance of pink painless pimples, the size of which does not exceed 5 mm. Pustules arise as a result of active multiplication of bacteria inside the comedon, which leads to inflammation and the formation of pus. Extrude them undesirable - this can result in exacerbation of inflammation and increase in the size of the pimple.
Nodes - large and painful acne eruptions more than five millimeters in diameter are cyanotic-pink, have an unpleasant appearance. Such a large pimple can leave scars behind you.
It is difficult to find a person who has never had pimples on the face or other parts of the body. Causes of acne are found in minor hormonal changes, mechanical damage to the skin, excessive exposure to ultraviolet light. This condition does not require treatment, traces and scars after it do not remain. When comedones appear, there is a reason to be alert, as it is possible to develop inflammation and the formation of papules. If a small amount of acne and comedones is constantly present on the face (no more than ten pieces), then this condition is considered a mild degree of acne. At this stage of the disease there is no formation of pustules or knots. To get rid of the problem, it is enough to adhere to the rules of hygiene, medication in this case is not assigned.
At an average severity of the disease, except for a certain number of papules and comedones (10-25), there is the appearance of small pustules (pustules), there are no nodes. The skin around the rashes is inflamed, a cyanotic-pink hue. At this stage, consultation of a dermatologist is needed, self-medication will not benefit, moreover, negative consequences are possible. If acne and acne are not treated, scars and scars may remain.
The third, severe degree is diagnosed with 25-50 papules and 21-30 pustules, a small number of painful nodes (up to five). At this stage, large areas of skin become inflamed. The nodes leave scars behind them. A severe degree of the disease is treated with medication, as most often this condition is caused by hormonal failures, immune system disorders, gastrointestinal diseases.
At this stage, there are more than 50 comedones and 30 papules, pustules, more than five knots, the skin inflamed and reddened. Perhaps the fusion of pustules and the formation of abscesses, which leads to severe pain and psychological discomfort. The soreness of the nodes located deep under the skin is noted, after them there are strongly visible scars. At this stage, the patient has serious depression, and the use of antidepressants and tranquilizers only aggravates the skin condition. A person needs consultation not only a dermatologist, but also a psychologist.
When choosing a method of treatment, it is important to consider the prevalence of the process, the degree and duration of the disease. Most often doctors treat acne (acne) with lotions, gels, creams that contain tretinoin. Such drugs help reduce sebum secretion.
Sometimes treatment with antibiotics is necessary - to reduce inflammation and kill bacteria. In especially severe cases, a drug that contains isotretinoin is prescribed for ingestion. Such treatment is contraindicated for women in the period of bearing a child.
To avoid the appearance of scars and scars, injections are assigned to various drugs in the affected area, which contributes to the rapid healing and removal of inflammation.
Prevention of any form of the disease requires preventive measures. It is necessary to limit the use of carbohydrates, fatty and fried foods, spicy foods, sweets. Useful foods with high fiber content. It is important to regularly conduct water procedures using soap or special means. After exercise or physical exertion, take a shower. It is useful to take vitamin complexes, especially those that contain vitamins of groups B, A and E.
In non-inflammatory form, special strips are used as a treatment, with the help of which a rash can be mechanically removed. To cleanse the skin and destroy bacteria, it is necessary to wipe the damaged areas with salicylic alcohol.
Acne (inflammation) of the inflammatory nature is treated with the help of a solarium. You can wipe the problem areas with salicylic alcohol, purchased at the pharmacy. More effective is the preparation "Skinoren" based on azelaic acid or "Zinerit" with erythromycin and zinc, which destroy bacteria. You can use the "Baziron", which suppresses the secretion of sebum. "Accutane" has the same properties.
If the measures taken do not have the desired effect, you will need to use antibiotics. Most often appoint "Clindamycin", the course of treatment which is ten days. Heavy degrees of acne are treated by cleansing the blood (plasmapheresis) or by removing the rashes with a laser.
Peeling is used to cleanse the skin. This procedure consists in removing the surface layers of the skin with weak acid solutions (chemical peeling). Mechanical grinding (dermabrasion) can be used. You can get rid of acne with a special plucked massage, surface cryotherapy.
Hormonal treatment against acne is mainly prescribed to women. Most often recommended the use of combined preparations of estrogen and progestogen. With polycystic ovaries, spironolactone is prescribed.
Home treatment will be effective if you follow certain rules:
1. It is undesirable to wash your face more than twice a day. Frequent water procedures provoke inflammatory processes. It is necessary to replace soap with foam or gel for problem skin, use them in moderation.
2. During treatment adhere to a diet. In the diet must prevail vegetables and fruits, sour-milk products. It is necessary to limit the consumption of meat and sweets. Very useful bran, which contribute to the elimination of toxins.
3. Take a complex of vitamins with zinc.
4. Do not try to squeeze out a big pimple on your own, this can increase inflammation.
Basically, to get rid of acne, it is enough to use various over-the-counter anti-acne drugs with benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, resorcin, salicylic acid and sulfur.
Benzoyl peroxide helps to destroy bacteria that cause the appearance of acne. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and keratolytic action. With resorcinol, salicylic acid and sulfur, comedones are released.
Apply these funds daily to the affected areas after skin cleansing. If there is a drying out or irritation, reduce the frequency of use of the drug (1 time in 2-3 days).
For effective treatment at home, you can use folk remedies for acne.
Mask with bran and baking soda
Rye bran (1 item) is ground with a grinder or meat grinder, add one or two teaspoons of soda, mix thoroughly. The required amount of the mixture is diluted with water. You should get a gruel, which is applied to the face and held for 7-10 minutes, after which it is washed off with cool water with a pinch of soda dissolved in it. The remaining product is stored in a glass container and used as needed.
Very effective. Honey (2 tsp) is dissolved in hot water (1 tbsp.) And added a tincture of calendula (2 tsp). The solution needs to soak the cotton wool discs, squeeze and apply to the inflamed areas. The procedure is carried out in the morning and in the evening.
You will need fresh needles of pine or spruce (2 tablespoons), two or three leaves of plantain, dried flowers of chamomile and calendula (1 tablespoon). All components are mixed and poured with boiling water (0.5 liters). This means rinse your face. You can pour the same amount of vodka, insist 7-10 days. Alcohol lotion is wiped only by inflamed areas no more than once a day.
Ice cubes of herbs
Washing in the morning can be replaced by rubbing ice cubes, which helps to narrow the pores. You need to take St. John's wort and chamomile for 2 tbsp. l. pour boiling water (1 liter) and cook on low heat for 7-10 minutes. The broth is infused 4-5 hours and poured into ice molds.
The main prophylactic means of acne on the face is regular skin care. People who are addicted to such a disease should not use fatty creams, oils and ointments that contain lanolin and petroleum jelly. It is necessary to choose that cosmetics, which is labeled "non-comedogenic", it does not have components that contribute to the occurrence of acne.
During treatment, it is necessary to exclude fatty, spicy, fried foods, sweet and flour products from the diet. It is recommended to limit the use of carbonated drinks, strong tea and coffee. Alcohol and smoking have a negative effect on the condition of the skin. The diet should be dominated by vegetables and fruits, freshly squeezed juices, sour-milk products. Proper nutrition, walking in the fresh air, physical activity in combination with medication or folk treatment will help to forget about acne (acne and acne).