Adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland is a serious cancer. Previously, he was considered one of the main causes of death among older men. Today, this disease is increasingly diagnosed at a young age. Is it possible to prevent the development of cancer? How to recognize its manifestations in the early stages?
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a malignant epithelial neoplasm, which refers to cancer. All over the world this diagnosis is confirmed annually in 500 thousand new patients. Despite the constant improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic methods, the mortality from adenocarcinoma remains high. Why? Patients often ignore the initial symptoms of the problem and do not rush to get help from a doctor.
The main causes of the disease
Adenocarcinoma develops through the germination of a tumor in the prostate or migration through the lymphatic ducts. The immediate cause of this disease is known - uncontrolled reproduction of atypical cells. They gradually penetrate into healthy tissue. Atypical elements are formed as a result of genetic mutations. Why is this happening, modern medicine can not exactly answer. However, doctors identify a whole group of factors that increase the likelihood of developing the disease:
- Genetic predisposition. The risk of developing prostate adenocarcinoma is doubled if a similar pathology was previously diagnosed in relatives.
- The accuracy of the diet (lack of plant foods in the diet).
- Overweight, hypodynamia.
- Smoking. The carcinogenic substances contained in cigarette smoke have a negative effect on the entire body.
- Hormonal features. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland is several times more common in men with high testosterone levels. In this case, the disease in them proceeds in an aggressive form.
Other factors, common to all forms of oncological ailments, carry a certain influence. This radiation, bad ecology, work in hazardous production, and so on.
How to recognize adenocarcinoma?
Manifestations of this disease can not be called characteristic. Usually, men develop symptoms similar to the clinical picture of urinary infections. If the tumor is small, for a long time it does not manifest itself. As the tumor grows, the patient’s condition deteriorates dramatically. Here are some manifestations of prostate adenocarcinoma:
- Increased urination to urinate. At the same time, the amount of fluid consumed remains unchanged.
- Cramps in abdomen and anus.
- Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder after going to the toilet.
- Problems with potency.
- The presence of blood impurities in the semen and urine.
The initial symptoms of the disease are similar to those recorded with prostate adenoma. Therefore, even at the stage of diagnosis, it is important to differentiate one pathology from another. After the appearance of metastases (4th stage of the disease), the painful discomfort increases, and the swelling of the lower extremities appears. Sometimes paralysis develops against the compression of the spine with a tumor.
Types of prostate adenocarcinoma
One of the factors determining treatment tactics is the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. This term refers to the degree of maturity of the tumor, the difference between healthy and pathological cells. It is used to classify the disease. At the same time, there are distinguished low-, medium- and well-differentiated elements of the neoplasm. According to the incidence of incidence, there are such types of adenocarcinoma as:
- small acid;
- highly differentiated;
- poorly differentiated;
Small-scale prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common variant of the disease. Its source is the epithelium of the acini of the prostate. New growths usually develop simultaneously in several places, and then merge together. Used for the treatment of: surgery, hormonal testosterone blockade and radiotherapy.
The second most common type of adenocarcinoma is highly differentiated. As a rule, the tumor develops slowly and does not metastasize. Its elements do not differ in structure from normal cells. With timely detection, the prognosis for treatment is favorable.
The most rare and aggressive form of adenocarcinoma is squamous. It is characterized by rapid metastasis to the bone. Hormone therapy and chemotherapy for this form of the disease is often ineffective. Patients are advised to have a radical prostatectomy.
Low grade adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland has moderate severity. The tumor is characterized by a layered structure, and on the Gleason scale it corresponds to 8-10 points. The neoplasm quickly grows into neighboring organs.
Diagnosis of the disease
In European clinics, all men after 45 years undergo compulsory screening for prostate diseases. It includes a urologist consultation and a blood test for a specific antigen. The latter is considered the most informative test for early diagnosis of oncology. A high level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood indirectly indicates the presence of a pathological process.
Another illustrative research method is the rectal test. It allows you to assess the condition of the body and the degree of its functionality. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland has a positive prognosis only in the initial stages of development. In other cases, expensive and long-term treatment is required.
If you suspect this disease is additionally prescribed:
In many modern clinics, a special rectal probe is used to assess the condition of the prostate. It allows you to take material for research using a rapid-fire needle. This device is inserted into the rectum, and the results of the procedure are displayed on the monitor screen.
Stages of development of the disease
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to determine what type of acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland (what it is, described just above), as well as the degree of the pathological process. The development of this disease occurs in the same stages as prostate cancer of other forms. The only difference is the prognosis for complete recovery. For example, squamous forms all stages of growth are rapidly. A moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland is also characterized by a rather high rate of development. However, their discovery at the initial stage of development is considered a real miracle. If we start treatment in time, we can hope for a favorable outcome.
What stages of prostate adenocarcinoma secrete? In total there are four:
- The first stage is extremely rare. Changes in tissue structures are minimal, they can only be detected through a biopsy. Analyzes usually show insignificant deviations from standard indicators.
- The second stage is characterized by damage to certain parts of the gland, as well as its membranes. Changes in its structure can be detected by palpation.
- At the third stage, there is active tumor growth, multiplication of oncological cells. The pathological process gradually spreads to the vesicles of the prostate.
- At the fourth stage, the lesion of neighboring organs occurs. The proliferation of oncological elements continues. Metastases can be found in the lymph nodes and the walls of the abdominal cavity.
Basic principles of therapy
Winning adenocarcinoma is possible only at the initial stage of the disease. With adequate and complete therapy, it is possible to arrest the symptoms and slow the progression of the pathological process at any stage. The choice of a specific treatment strategy depends on the degree of spread of the tumor. Some variants of the location of the neoplasm allow the operation to excise the gland and regional nodes. Today, doctors are trying to use minimally invasive techniques that do not require a long rehabilitation period. Localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland often requires expectant tactics and constant observation. The prognosis of survival does not always increase during active therapy.
Conservative and surgical treatment of adenocarcinoma
If the tumor is available for removal, the patient is prescribed an operation - prostatectomy. Currently, it is performed with the help of a laparoscope or robot assistant. After prostatectomy, a long rehabilitation period is required. It includes measures to restore the functions of the pelvic organs, male potency (if this is still relevant).
In the later stages of treatment, hormone preparations and radiation therapy are supplemented. The latter has several options. The source of radiation can be outside or inside (introduction of a capsule with radioactive isotopes of iodine). When prostatectomy is contraindicated, it is replaced with cryotherapy. During this procedure, the tumor is frozen, resulting in malignant cells are destroyed.
Acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland 7 points and higher in elderly patients is usually not subject to surgical intervention. In such a case, dynamic observation and palliative measures are assigned.
What is the outcome of the diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma? The prognosis for this disease depends largely on the stage of development of the pathological process, the age of the patient and his general condition. In the early stages, it is rated as conditionally favorable. Unfortunately, adenocarcinoma at the initial stages of development does not manifest itself as a vivid clinical picture. Therefore, patients do not rush for help to the doctor. Most of them notice the problem at the 3-4th stage, when metastases already appear. In this case, the disease is irreversible.
Oncological diseases in the modern world are increasingly becoming the cause of early death. Among the representatives of the stronger sex, adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland is most common. The treatment of this pathology is long and very difficult. Diagnosis of the disease in the later stages usually ends soon with fatal outcome. To prevent the development of such an insidious disease, it is necessary to adhere to a healthy lifestyle and regularly undergo preventive examinations. Be healthy!