Oncological diseases can hardly be considered a rarity. And, unfortunately, they are often exposed to even newborn children. Why does neuroblastoma occur? What it is? What are the symptoms of the disease? Are there effective methods of treatment? These questions are of interest to many.
Neuroblastoma - what is it?
To date, neuroblastoma is considered one of the most common types of tumors that occur in children. It is formed from cells that are the precursors of neurons during intrauterine development. Most often, the disease is diagnosed at an early age - the first symptoms appear in 1-3 years. Much less often in children over the age of ten, neuroblastoma is found.
The causes of tumor formation are unknown to date. Numerous studies have shown only that the genetic heredity of the baby is extremely important. Some scientists believe that the wrong development of neuroblast cells is due to the impact on the fetal organism of the negative factors of the external and internal environment. Most often this formation is malignant, and not in every case is curable.
Neuroblastoma: what is it? The main forms of the disease
Depending on the location, the nature of growth and the specificity of cellular processes, it is common to divide these tumors into several main groups.
- Sympathoblastoma is a malignant tumor, which, as a rule, is formed during intrauterine development. As a rule, it affects the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal glands.
- Meluloblastoma - such a neoplasm is located deep in the tissues of the cerebellum. The tumor quickly gives metastases to neighboring organs and does not lend itself to surgical treatment because of specific localization.
- Neurofibrosarcoma affects parts of the sympathetic nervous system located in the abdominal cavity.
- Retinoblastoma is a neoplasm that affects the retina of the eye and quickly gives metastases to the brain.
Neuroblastoma and the stages of its development
At the first stage of development, the tumor is located in the primary focus zone. As the growth grows, the neoplasm spreads beyond the hearth - this is the second stage. In the future, the tumor increases in size and affects the nearby lymphatic vessels. Neuroblastoma of the 4th degree gives metastases to various organs, including the bone system, soft tissues and lymph nodes. As a rule, such a spread of malignant cells leads to the death of the child.
Main symptoms of neuroblastoma
The first signs of a tumor can hardly be called specific. At the initial stages there is a lack of appetite, nausea and constipation. Skin covers have a pale shade. Sick children are capricious. As the disease develops, increased sweating, increased heart rate, hair loss begins.
Further symptoms depend on the location of the tumor and the presence of metastases. For example, the growth of the neoplasm in the abdominal cavity is accompanied by protrusion in the lumbar region or costal arches. Mullooloblastoma causes impaired coordination.
Treatment of Neuroblastoma
Certainly, at the first suspicions it is necessary to address to the qualified children's oncologist. Only a specialist knows how neuroblastoma is formed, what it is and how to correctly diagnose it. For the treatment using standard methods - surgical removal, radiation and chemotherapy. The prognosis for children with neuroblastoma of the first and second degree is quite good - correctly performed treatment allows to reach a long stage of remission.